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Old 11-26-2007, 12:36 PM   #16
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Originally posted by diamond
the key is circumcision.

dbs

Circumcision reduces the risk or contagion to some extent, but it doesn't prevent.

A condom is way safer.
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Old 11-26-2007, 02:05 PM   #17
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the key is circumcision.

dbs
I guess that some just need to justify genital mutilation, it keeps them kids out of the sex.
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Old 11-26-2007, 02:46 PM   #18
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Quote:
Originally posted by diamond
the key is circumcision.

dbs
I often wonder if you just try and out do yourself with comments like this, or are you really this uninformed?
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Old 11-26-2007, 02:54 PM   #19
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Are Mormons opposed to condoms? I have no idea, I am seriously wondering.
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Old 11-26-2007, 03:23 PM   #20
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I guess that some just need to justify genital mutilation, it keeps them kids out of the sex.


and not just the sex.

the masturbation.
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Old 11-26-2007, 10:51 PM   #21
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Quote:
Originally posted by diamond
the key is circumcision.

dbs


Let me get this straight, the removal of the foreskin allows the magical force-field to appear therefore filtering HIV from the sperm as it exits. wow. So according to this it's only those with intact foreskins that can contract HIV or AIDS.
To think that the solution has been right there in our faces this whole time.




I really hope you weren't serious with this statement
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Old 11-26-2007, 10:54 PM   #22
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Mmmmmm, yeah, because circumcision matters when a mother is passing HIV "horizontally" or "vertically" to her child....

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Old 11-27-2007, 07:19 AM   #23
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Quote:
Originally posted by MrsSpringsteen


Are Mormons opposed to condoms? I have no idea, I am seriously wondering.
no.
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Old 11-27-2007, 07:24 AM   #24
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Originally posted by cinnaminson




Let me get this straight, the removal of the foreskin allows the magical force-field to appear therefore filtering HIV from the sperm as it exits. wow. So according to this it's only those with intact foreskins that can contract HIV or AIDS.
To think that the solution has been right there in our faces this whole time.




I really hope you weren't serious with this statement
Not quite, but read this:

Adult Male Circumcision Significantly Reduces Risk of Acquiring HIV
Trials in Kenya and Uganda Stopped Early
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), announced an early end to two clinical trials of adult male circumcision because an interim review of trial data revealed that medically performed circumcision significantly reduces a man's risk of acquiring HIV through heterosexual intercourse. The trial in Kisumu, Kenya, of 2,784 HIV-negative men showed a 53 percent reduction of HIV acquisition in circumcised men relative to uncircumcised men, while a trial of 4,996 HIV-negative men in Rakai, Uganda, showed that HIV acquisition was reduced by 48 percent in circumcised men.

"These findings are of great interest to public health policy makers who are developing and implementing comprehensive HIV prevention programs,"says NIH Director Elias A. Zerhouni, M.D. "Male circumcision performed safely in a medical environment complements other HIV prevention strategies and could lessen the burden of HIV/AIDS, especially in countries in sub-Saharan Africa where, according to the 2006 estimates from UNAIDS, 2.8 million new infections occurred in a single year."

"Many studies have suggested that male circumcision plays a role in protecting against HIV acquisition," notes NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. "We now have confirmation — from large, carefully controlled, randomized clinical trials — showing definitively that medically performed circumcision can significantly lower the risk of adult males contracting HIV through heterosexual intercourse. While the initial benefit will be fewer HIV infections in men, ultimately adult male circumcision could lead to fewer infections in women in those areas of the world where HIV is spread primarily through heterosexual intercourse."

The findings from the African studies may have less impact on the epidemic in the United States for several reasons. In the United States, most men have been circumcised. Also, there is a lower prevalence of HIV. Moreover, most infections among men in the United States are in men who have sex with men, for whom the amount of benefit provided by circumcision is unknown. Nonetheless, the overall findings of the African studies are likely to be broadly relevant regardless of geographic location: a man at sexual risk who is uncircumcised is more likely than a man who is circumcised to become infected with HIV. Still, circumcision is only part of a broader HIV prevention strategy that includes limiting the number of sexual partners and using condoms during intercourse.

The co-principal investigators of the Kenyan trial are Robert Bailey, Ph.D., M.P.H., of the University of Illinois at Chicago, and Stephen Moses, M.D., M.P.H., University of Manitoba, Canada. In addition to NIAID support, the Kenyan trial was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and included Kenyan researchers Jeckoniah Ndinya-Achola, M.B.Ch.B., and Kawango Agot, Ph.D., M.P.H. The Ugandan trial is led by Ronald Gray, M.B.B.S., M.Sc., of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland. Additional collaborators in the Ugandan trial were David Serwadda, M.Med., M.Sc., M.P.H., Nelson Sewankambo, M.B.Ch.B., M.Med.M.Sc., Stephen Watya, M.B.Ch.B., M.Med., and Godfrey Kigozi, M.B.Ch.B., M.P.H.

Both trials involved adult, HIV-negative heterosexual male volunteers assigned at random to either intervention (circumcision performed by trained medical professionals in a clinic setting) or no intervention (no circumcision). All participants were extensively counseled in HIV prevention and risk reduction techniques.

Both trials reached their enrollment targets by September 2005 and were originally designed to continue follow-up until mid-2007. However, at the regularly scheduled meeting of the NIAID Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) on December 12, 2006, reviewers assessed the interim data and deemed medically performed circumcision safe and effective in reducing HIV acquisition in both trials. They therefore recommended the two studies be halted early. All men who were randomized into the non-intervention arms will now be offered circumcision.

"It is critical to emphasize that these clinical trials demonstrated that medical circumcision is safe and effective when the procedure is performed by medically trained professionals and when patients receive appropriate care during the healing period following surgery," notes Dr. Fauci.

Researchers have noted significant variations in HIV prevalence that seemed, at least in certain African and Asian countries, to be associated with levels of male circumcision in the community. In areas where circumcision is common, HIV prevalence tends to be lower; conversely, areas of higher HIV prevalence overlapped with regions where male circumcision is not commonly practiced.

Results of the first randomized clinical trial assessing the protective value of male circumcision against HIV infection, conducted by a team of French and South African researchers in South Africa, were reported in 2005. That trial of more than 3,000 HIV-negative men showed that circumcision reduced the risk of acquiring HIV by 60 percent. The trial was funded by the French Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le Sida (ANRS) (see http://www.anrs.fr/).

For more information on the Kenyan and Ugandan trials of adult male circumcision, see the NIAID Questions and Answers document at http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/news/QA/AMC12_QA.htm.

The World Health Organization (WHO) press statement in response to the NIAID DSMB recommendation is available on the WHO web site, www.who.int/hiv.

U.S. Broadcast Media: B-roll of the Rakai site can be downlinked from a satellite feed from 2:15 to 3:00 p.m. Eastern time. Test time will be 2:15-2:30 p.m.; the B-roll footage will be downlinked from 2:30-3:00 p.m. If you have technical problems, call 703-642-8585. The coordinates are as follows:

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News releases, fact sheets and other NIAID-related materials are available on the NIAID Web site at http://www.niaid.nih.gov.

NIAID is a component of the National Institutes of Health. NIAID supports basic and applied research to prevent, diagnose and treat infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections, influenza, tuberculosis, malaria and illness from potential agents of bioterrorism. NIAID also supports research on basic immunology, transplantation and immune-related disorders, including autoimmune diseases, asthma and allergies.

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) — The Nation's Medical Research Agency — includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. It is the primary federal agency for conducting and supporting basic, clinical and translational medical research, and it investigates the causes, treatments, and cures for both common and rare diseases. For more information about NIH and its programs, visit www.nih.gov.
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Old 11-27-2007, 09:27 AM   #25
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Quote:
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Not quite,
Now that wouldn't be "the key", now would it? A key doesn't almost open a door, it does open the door.
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Old 11-27-2007, 10:36 AM   #26
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Let's just say it's one of the many keys in reducing HIV significantly in Africa.

How about that?


dbs
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Old 11-27-2007, 10:41 AM   #27
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Let's just say that with education and the access to condoms you wouldn't have to go that route.

You're forcing your culture, I'd rather let those that are comfortable with what God gave them keep what God gave them. Unless of course you want to say God's design is flawed?
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Old 11-27-2007, 11:02 AM   #28
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Quote:
Originally posted by diamond
Let's just say it's one of the many keys in reducing HIV significantly in Africa.

How about that?


dbs


this is correct, to an extent.

HIV is passed from female to male as a result of small tears in the head of the penis that's protected by foreskin, and the head is much more delicate in uncircumsized men and thus more likely to tear.
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Old 11-27-2007, 06:05 PM   #29
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Huffington Post

World AIDS Day: Putting a Human Face on the Numbers

Posted November 27, 2007 | 02:59 PM (EST)

The recent announcement by UNAIDS and the World Health Organization that they may have overestimated the number of HIV positive people worldwide by as much as 20 percent has obscured the two most important issues that should be discussed this World AIDS Day. The first is the extraordinary success of the billion dollar initiatives of the past six years, which have resulted in putting over a million people in developing countries on anti-retroviral therapy. The second is that, despite this success, we continue to fail to meet the larger need: last year more than two million people died from AIDS -- nearly all in the developing world, 78 percent in sub-Saharan Africa alone.

How has it happened that the international news story should focus on statistical abstractions rather than the human face of the continuing pandemic? There are those who would lay responsibility at the feet of UN, and to be sure, they bear a good deal of blame. Despite the warnings of health experts and observers, the UN was content to oversimplify, accepting data without critical review or revision. Now, critics are blasting the sloppy results, while the toll of the disease on individuals may be lost amidst the noise.

It's important this doesn't happen. An overlooked reason for the suffering of Africans was a fundamental breakdown in health systems which allowed HIV to thrive, undiagnosed and untreated, for several decades. AIDS is now estimated to have emerged in central Africa in the 1940s, and as epidemiological forensics improve, that date may roll back substantially. Through the 1960s and '70s, a deadly "slimming" disease destroyed swaths of humanity long before hitting our radar screen in the early 1980s. Decades of underinvestment in the public health system and the utter exclusion of services for the poor made it possible for the international community to miss the disease until it was globally established.

AIDS is now treatable but this requires well-trained health professionals, infrastructure, and management. Rwanda, where I work and live, is a crucible of sorts for the pandemic. Before the emergence of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria just five years ago, Rwandans who had AIDS simply died. With financing from the U.S. government and the Global Fund, surveillance and testing of HIV improved dramatically, and effective treatment began. By 2004, testing in urban clinics indicated that from 10-30 percent of women showing up for pre-natal care were HIV positive.

It was figures like these that, until recently, informed data analysis which led to higher figures of AIDS prevalence. In Rwanda, these initial studies implied a 12-15 percent overall prevalence of HIV in the population. Previous studies had shown that any time prevalence moves above the five percent mark (five times higher than the international average), epidemics can grow to staggering proportions, as was seen in Botswana where nearly half of all adults are HIV positive.

Rwanda recognized the potential catastrophe and took quick action. It designed new strategies and programs, streamlined management, and attracted international donor money. From the head of state to local leaders, the country was engaged in fighting the virus.

In the past couple of years, it's become apparent that Rwanda didn't have the whole picture. It's prevalence rate is closer to three to five percent -- far below what had been originally estimated. While this figure is a relief, enormous challenges test the public health infrastructure. Understaffed health centers without running water are hard pressed to deliver HIV/AIDS services. AIDS funding that has been committed to Rwanda, even when the higher statistics prevailed, has gone into much-needed medical and management training and infrastructure improvement, providing a better health setting for all patients.

While the numbers of people living with HIV may have been exaggerated due to poor data, the consequences of not doing more to serve the needs of the poor have not been. Millions in sub-Saharan Africa continue to go untreated and undiagnosed, and more -- not less -- needs to be done. The real question this World AIDS Day is not, "how did we miscount the infected by 6 million?" but rather, "how did we allow another 2.1 million to perish from a treatable disease and another 2.5 million to be infected?"

Josh Ruxin is Assistant Clinical Professor of Public Health at the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University and Director of the Access Project in Rwanda.
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Old 12-02-2007, 04:14 AM   #30
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thanks for posting that article Diamond, it's great to see someone who actually has something to back them up and not just resort to emotional name calling.

I also agree with BonoVoxSuperstar. Education and free condoms are the ONLY thing that will work. Relying on circumcision is just too risky.
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