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Old 09-30-2003, 03:01 AM   #16
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There are some problems with the model of Country A vs. B.

#1 Country B has the option to invest in technology that would increase production of food and reduce cost per unit produced. The advantages that technology provides are not limited to the production of watches. Its true enviromental factors do put constraints on Country B. that Country A would not have.

#2 Demand! Production of watches is limited by Demand. Production of food though is more vital in a way that watches are not.

#3 Country B does not have to turn deserts into gardens, it can use the land that it has to produce the products to meet the demand in Country A. Rather than produce food in non-cost effective ways, it can invest in technology to reduce the cost of what it currently produces and find other ways to increase the yield from the land that can be farmed. The environment may put constraints on the total amount that can be produced at some point, but Country B does not have to engage in inefficient production methods. It is not logical for Country B to try and produce food in area's where it would not have its comparitive advantage to Country A in producing the same product. Such money is better spent on technology that would further reduce the cost of the production of the food there by increasing its comparitive advantage in this area.
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Old 09-30-2003, 09:14 AM   #17
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Net worth of US cotton farmers nearly $1,000,000? Gee sure wish they'd tell the ones around here. I live in cotton field country and most of these people are barely making a living. I'm sure net worth includes the value of their land and their farm equiptment, all of which are worthless if the crop doesn't bring a good price. No one around here is a millionaire. The ones I know are living hand in mouth and drive beat up junkers. They can't even think of paying for college for their kids.

Farmers in the US have a hard time. That's what Farm Aid was about. The gov't does give some ridiculous subsidies, like the ones to sheep farmers because wool used to be used for Army uniforms even though it no longer uses wool! But the collapse of many family farms in the 80's was a disaster. Some of the things the gov't does are crazy, but some are needed to keep our own industry alive and healthy and some farmers would go bust without them. I'm sorry for struggling farmers everywhere, but why should ours struggle more so some others can struggle less?
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Old 09-30-2003, 09:15 AM   #18
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Quote:
Originally posted by STING2
There are some problems with the model of Country A vs. B.

#1 Country B has the option to invest in technology that would increase production of food and reduce cost per unit produced. The advantages that technology provides are not limited to the production of watches. Its true enviromental factors do put constraints on Country B. that Country A would not have.

#2 Demand! Production of watches is limited by Demand. Production of food though is more vital in a way that watches are not.

#3 Country B does not have to turn deserts into gardens, it can use the land that it has to produce the products to meet the demand in Country A. Rather than produce food in non-cost effective ways, it can invest in technology to reduce the cost of what it currently produces and find other ways to increase the yield from the land that can be farmed. The environment may put constraints on the total amount that can be produced at some point, but Country B does not have to engage in inefficient production methods. It is not logical for Country B to try and produce food in area's where it would not have its comparitive advantage to Country A in producing the same product. Such money is better spent on technology that would further reduce the cost of the production of the food there by increasing its comparitive advantage in this area.

Point 1--not if they don't have any investment capital, no they don't!

Point 3--see point 1; also remember that MNCs are rendering at least some of that land unuseable. Many of these developing nations are caught in the "you have to make money to make money" paradox and can't get their footing because of it.

The real question, however, is what the hail right does the WTO have to right trade laws for nations that have not had a say in those laws. Me countrymen fought a war over that, if I remember right.


Hiphop--word! You fight poverty cause it's the right thing to do. I do like the connection to terror arguement, though, because its factual and practical and could possibly bring along others who don't necessary our opinion.



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Old 09-30-2003, 01:57 PM   #19
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STING2 - you make some valid points that Smith did not think of. It is true that there are some options and possibilities, anyhow, they are limited for developing countries, like Sherry pointed out. Anyway, like we have found out in earlier discussions (see some threads a year ago) industrial development does not necessarily lead to less poverty, and does not automatically make economy grow, or a country more able to "stand on its own feet". We could enter a long discussion about the pro´s and cons of several economic measures here, but we won´t (because I´m not paid for it ).

Anyhow, the example Country A vs. B was designed as a part of the theory of comparative advantage (the first two paragraphs, Adam Smith). I wanted to make clear that this theory is just a plain theory. Therefore its not total rubbish, but doesn´t have a lot to do with the real world, as we can see.

Sherry Darling-word! I don´t like the connection to the terror argument though, because "others who do not necessarily share opinion" may turn the inefficiency of the argument into a counter-argument. I think people have to convinced with the right arguments. I also think manipulation for the right cause is fine. But I would prefer it to be a little more accurate

Any kind of "fight against terrorism" is totally useless as long as it does not concentrate on the financial transactions involved. As everyone knows (everyone who´s not totally legally drugged), the "fight against terrorism" is just a keyword in order to justify economic and military action, to cut personal rights domestically, to gain control internationally. As we can see, all of that works out pretty well (except for the soldiers in Iraq).

"Opening our markets to farm products and textiles would be critical to drawing many nations — including Muslim ones — more deeply into the interdependent web of global capitalism and ultimately democracy."

I can not see any connection between global capitalism and democracy. Capitalism is defined economically, democracy is defined politically. Robert Wright implies that global capitalism leads to democracy. I do not believe in this theory... another one of those nice theories that plays a part in keeping the third world in poverty for the next 40 years... maybe then it´s proved wrong, but hey, let´s get to the next fucking theory.

"The Economist quoted a World Bank study that said a Cancún agreement, reducing tariffs and agrisubsidies, could have raised global income by $500 billion a year by 2015 — over 60 percent of which would go to poor countries and pull 144 million people out of poverty."

Agreed, I guess, without having checked the stats.

"The U.S. and Europe, argues Clyde Prestowitz, the trade expert and author of "Rogue Nation," should actually shrink their farm subsidies unilaterally, even if developing countries don't immediately reciprocate. Such a move is essential," wrote Mr. Prestowitz on the YaleGlobal Web site, "not only as a matter of providing a badly needed boost to developing countries, but also because the failure [of Cancún] poses a serious threat to the main hope of generating the economic growth necessary to lift developing countries out of poverty."

Yep, I think Mr. Prestowitz knows what he´s talking about.
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Old 09-30-2003, 03:05 PM   #20
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Sherry Darling,

"Point 1--not if they don't have any investment capital, no they don't!"

Ah, but were talking about a hypothetical senerio where Country B is producing all of Country A's food. In such a senerio, country B would have money to invest.

Protectionism does not work, free trade does. Many liberals presented scary models about what would happen to a more integrated Europe. People in Northern Europe feared all their jobs would go south to Portugal and Italy. People in Southern Europe feared they would not be able to compete and would lose out in the process. The reality is that the majority of people have benefited from greater intergration and free trade in Europe. Eastern European countries are pushing to get into the EU.

160 years ago, Ireland was one of the poorest countries on the planet. The famine killed and forced the immigration of nearly half of the population. Today Ireland is the 3rd richest country on the planet based on per capita GDP. Only the USA and Luxembourg are higher. Here is the top 10:

1. Luxembourg 53,780
2. United States 34,320

3. Ireland 32,410

4. Iceland 29,990
5. Norway 29,620
6. Denmark 29,000
7. Switzerland 28,100
8. Netherlands 27,190
9. Canada 27,130
10. Austria 26,730

Free Trade can develop countries that are the most impoverished.
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Old 09-30-2003, 05:40 PM   #21
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Quote:
Originally posted by STING2
Ah, but were talking about a hypothetical senerio where Country B is producing all of Country A's food. In such a senerio, country B would have money to invest.


Yes, but does such a senario reflect any of the real situations in which developing nations find themselves?

Quote:
Protectionism does not work, free trade does.
Yes, that's right. And it's exactly why we should stop protecting our markets so much.

One other important cavaet that free traders usually aren't aware of, or ignore: for developed nations, free trade works. For developing nations, some measure of protection is necesary, as any study of how Western Europe and the US developed will show. See Ha Joon Chang's (Cambridge dev. econ prof) "Kicking Away the Ladder: Development Strategy in Historical Perspective" for charts, documents, details.

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Old 09-30-2003, 05:40 PM   #22
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Largest 25 Economies in the world based on total GDP
2001


1. United States 9,792.5 1
2. China 5,111.2
3. Japan 3,193.0
4. India 2,930.0
5. Germany 2,086.8

6. Italy 1,429.7
7. United Kingdom 1,420.3
8. France 1,420.0
9. Brazil 1,268.6
10. Russian Federation 1,027.9

11. Canada 843.2
12. Mexico 838.2 2
13. Spain 828.4
14. Korea, Rep. of 714.2
15. Indonesia 615.2

16. Australia 491.8
17. South Africa 488.2 2
18. Netherlands 436.2
19. Argentina 424.4
20. Thailand 391.7

21. Turkey 390.3
22. Iran, Islamic Rep. of 387.2
23. Poland 365.3
24. Colombia 302.8
25. Philippines 301.1
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Old 09-30-2003, 05:45 PM   #23
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Sting,
What does that actually have to do with the debate? Please explain!
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Old 09-30-2003, 05:58 PM   #24
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I'll explain, FW. Sting's kindly making my case for me. Not a single African, and scarcely an LA country on the list. Not even many "transistion" economies, except for Poland and Turkey. Man, the debt has GOT TO GO and the wealthy nations have GOT to bite the bullet and open their markets to people OTHER than fellow rich, powerful nations.



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Old 09-30-2003, 06:01 PM   #25
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Its just food for thought in this economics debate. If it bothers you that much, have the mods remove it.
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Old 09-30-2003, 06:30 PM   #26
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Remember, this is just total wealth and not a reflection of Standard of Living in each country. Also many African and LA countries have smaller populations which has a big impact on total GDP. While India might have the worlds 4th largest economy, it ranks 127 in the world in standard of living. The Occupied Palestinian Territories by comparison rank at #98 in the world when it comes to Standard of Living.

Here is a list of how the worlds 25 largest economies rank when it come to standard of living. Standard of living ranking to the right.

1. United States 7th in the world
2. China 104th in the world
3. Japan 9th in the world
4. India 127th in the world
5. Germany 18th in the world
6. Italy 21st in the world
7. United Kingdom 13 in the world
8. France 17th in the world
9. Brazil 65th in the world
10. Russia 63 in the world

11. Canada 8th in the world
12. Mexico 55th in the world
13. Spain 19th in the world
14. Korea Rep. of 30th in the world
15. Indonesia 112th in the world
16. Australia 4th in the world
17. South Africa 111th in the world
18. Netherlands 5th in the world
19. Argentina 34th in the world
20. Thailand 74th in the world

21. Turkey 96th in the world
22. Iran 106th in the world
23. Poland 35th in the world
24. Columbia 64th in the world
25. Philippines 85th in the world
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Old 09-30-2003, 07:33 PM   #27
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Aw, Sting. No one's mad. I think (though she can of course speak for herself) she was just asking what the specific connection was. If there wasn't one, and it was just FYI, it was interesting info, so thank you!

I think it's like Sweden or Finland or something which has the highest SOL, btw, if memory serves. Good argument for more socialist democracies. But that's a whole other thread.

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Old 09-30-2003, 09:21 PM   #28
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The countries with the top 30 standards of living in the world are:

1. Norway
2. Iceland
3. Sweden
4. Australia
5. Netherlands
6. Belgium
7. United States
8. Canada
9. Japan
10. Switzerland
11. Denmark
12. Ireland
13. United Kingdom
14. Findland
15. Luxembourg
16. Austria
17. France
18. Germany
19. Spain
20. New Zealand
21. Italy
22. Israel
23. Portugal
24. Greece
25. Cyprus
26. Hong Kong
27. Barbados
28. Singapore
29. Slovenia
30. South Korea
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Old 10-01-2003, 12:23 AM   #29
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I know we've defined this before but what is Standard of Living based on again?
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Old 10-01-2003, 01:30 AM   #30
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Here are a list of factors that went into forming the Human Development Index or "standard of living" above.


MONITORING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT: ENLARGING PEOPLE’S CHOICES . .
1 Human development index
Life expectancy at birth (years)
Adult literacy rate (% age 15 and above)
Combined primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrolment ratio (%)
GDP per capita (PPP US$)
Life expectancy index
Education index
GDP index
Human development index (HDI) value
GDP per capita (PPP US$) rank minus HDI rank
2 Human development index trend
Human Development Index
3 Human and income poverty: developing countries
Human Poverty Index (HPI-1) rank
Human Poverty Index (HPI-1) value
Probability at birth of not surviving to age 40 (% of cohort)
Adult illiteracy rate (% age 15 and above)
Population without sustainable access to an improved water source
Children under weight for age (% under age 5)
Population living below $1 a day (%)
Population living below $2 a day (%)
Population living below the national poverty line (%)
HPI-1 rank minus income poverty rank
4 Human and income poverty: OECD, Central & Eastern Europe & CIS
Human Poverty Index (HPI-2) rank
Human Poverty Index (HPI-2) value
Probability at birth of not surviving to age 60 (% of cohort)
People lacking functional literacy skills (% age 16-65)
Long-term unemployment (as % of labour force)
Population living below 50% of median income (%)
Population living below $11 a day (1994 PPP US$)
Population living below $4 a day (1990 PPP US$)
HPI-2 rank minus income poverty rank

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

. . . TO LEAD A LONG AND HEALTHY LIFE . . .
5 Demographic trends
Total population (millions)
Annual population growth rate (%)
Urban population (as % of total)
Population under age 15 (as % of total)
population over age 65 (as % of total)
Total fertility rate (per woman)
6 Commitment to health: access, services and resources
Population with access to improved sanitation (%)
Population with sustainable access to an improved water source (%)
Population with sustainable access to affordable essential drugs (%)
One-year-olds fully immunized against tuberculosis (%)
One-year-olds fully immunized against measles (%)
Oral rehydration therapy use rate (%)
Contraceptive prevalence rate (%)
Births attended by skilled health personnel (%)
Physicians (per 100,000 people)
Public health expenditure (as % of GDP)
Private health expenditure (as % of GDP)
Health expenditure per capita (PPP US$)
7 Leading global health crises and challenges
Undernourished people (as % of total population)
Children underweight for age (% under age 5)
Children under height for age (% under age 5)
Infants with low birthweight (%)
People living with HIV/AIDS, adults (age 15-49)
People living with HIV/AIDS, women (age 15-49)
People living with HIV/AIDS, children (age 0-14)
Malaria cases (per 100,000 people)
Tuberculosis cases (per 100,000 people)
Cigarette consumption per adult (annual average)
8 Survival: progress and setbacks
Life expectancy at birth (years)
Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)
Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)
Probability at birth of surviving to age 65, female (% of cohort)
Probability at birth of surviving to age 65, male (% of cohort)
Maternal mortality ratio reported (per 100,000 live births)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

. . . TO ACQUIRE KNOWLEDGE . . .
9 Commitment to education: public spending
Public expenditure on education (as % of GDP)
Public expenditure on education (as % of total government expenditure)
Public expenditure on education, pre-pimary and primary (as % of all levels)
Public expenditure on education, secondary (as % of all levels)
Public expenditure on education, tertiary (as % of all levels)
10 Literacy and enrolment
Adult literacy rate (% age 15 and above)
Youth literacy rate (% age 15-24)
Net primary enrolment ratio (%)
Net secondary enrolment ratio (%)
Children reaching grade 5 (%)
Tertiary students in science, math and engineering (as % of all tertiary students)
11 Technology: diffusion and creation
Telephone mainlines (per 1,000 people)
Cellular subscribers (per 1,000 people)
Internet users (per 1,000 people)
Patents granted to residents (per million people)
Receipts of royalties and license fees (US$ per person)
Research and development (R&D) expenditures (as % of GDP)
Scientists & engineers in R&D (per million people)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

. . . TO HAVE ACCESS TO THE RESOURCES NEEDED FOR A DECENT STANDARD OF LIVING . . .
12 Economic performance
GDP (US$ billions)
GDP (PPP US$ Billion)
GDP per capita (US$)
GDP per capita (PPP US$)
GDP per capita annual growth rate (%)
GDP per capita, highest value (PPP US$)
GDP per capita, year of highest value
Average annual change in consumer price index (%)
13 Inequality in income or consumption
Survey Year
Share of income or consumption (%) - Poorest 10%
Share of income or consumption (%) - Poorest 20%
Share of income or consumption (%) - Richest 20%
Share of income or consumption (%) - Richest 10%
Inequality measures - Ratio of richest 10% to poorest 10%
Inequality measures - Ratio of richest 20% to poorest 20%
Inequality measures - Gini index
14 The structure of trade
Imports of goods and services (as % of GDP)
Exports of goods and services (as % of GDP)
Primary exports (as % of merchandise exports)
Manufactured exports (as % of merchandise exports)
High-technology exports (as % of merchandise exports)
Terms of trade (1980=100)
15 Flows of aid from DAC member countries
16 Flows of aid, private capital and debt
ODA received (net disbursements) Total (US$ millions)
ODA received (net disbursements) per capita (US$)
ODA received (net disbursements) (as % of GDP)
Net foreign direct investment inflows (as % of GDP)
Other private flows (as % of GDP)
Total debt service (as % of GDP)
Total debt service (as % of exports of goods and services)
17 Priorities in public spending
Public expenditure on education (as % of GDP)
Public expenditure on health (as % of GDP)
Military expenditure (as % of GDP)
Total debt service (as % of GDP)
18 Unemployment in OECD countries
Unemployed people (thousands)
Unemployment rate (% of labour force)
Average annual unemployment rate (% of labour force)
Female unemployment rate as % of male rate
Youth unemployment rate (% of labour force aged 15-24)
Female youth unemployment rate as % of male rate
Long-term unemployment (as % of total unemployment): Female
Long-term unemployment (as % of total unemployment): Male

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

. . . WHILE PRESERVING IT FOR FUTURE GENERATIONS . . .
19 Energy and the environment
Traditional fuel consumption (as % of total energy use)
Electricity consumption per capita (kilowatt-hours)
GDP per unit of energy use (PPP US$ per kg of oil equivalent)
Carbon dioxide emissions - Per capita (metric tons)
Carbon dioxide emissions - Share of world total (%)
Ratification of environmental treaties - Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety
Ratification of environmental treaties - Framework Convention on Climate Change
Ratification of environmental treaties - Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change
Ratification of environmental treaties - Convention on Biological Diversity

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

. . . PROTECTING PERSONAL SECURITY . . .
20 Refugees and armaments
Internally displaced persons (thousands)
Refugees by country of asylum (thousands)
Refugees by country of origin (thousands)
Conventional arms transfers (1990 prices) - Imports (US$ millions)
Conventional arms (1990 prices) - Exports (US$ million)
Conventional arms transfers (1990 prices) - Exports share (%)
Total armed forces Thousands
Total armed forces Index (1985=100)
21 Victims of crime

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

. . . AND ACHIEVING EQUALITY FOR ALL WOMEN AND MEN
22 Gender-related development index
Gender-related development index (GDI) rank
Gender-related development index (GDI) value
Female life expectancy at birth (years)
Male life expectancy at birth (years)
Female adult literacy rate (% age 15 and above)
Male adult literacy rate (% age 15 and above)
Female combined primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrolment ratio (%)
Male combined primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrolment ratio (%)
Female estimated earned income (PPP US$)
Male estimated earned income (PPP US$)
HDI rank minus GDI rank
23 Gender empowerment measure
Gender empowerment measure (GEM) rank
Gender empowerment measure (GEM) value
Seats in parliament held by women (as % of total)
Female legislators, senior officials and managers (as % of total)
Female professional and technical workers (as % of total)
Ratio of estimated female to male earned income
24 Gender inequality in education
Female adult literacy rate (% age 15 and above)
Adult literacy rate (female as % of male)
Female youth literacy rate (% age 15-24)
Youth literacy rate (female as % of male)
Female primary net enrolment ratio
Primary net enrolment ratio (female as % of male)
Female secondary net enrolment ratio
Secondary net enrolment ratio (female as % of male)
Female tertiary gross enrolment ratio
Tertiary gross enrolment ratio (female as % of male)
25 Gender inequality in economic activity
Female economic activity rate (% age 15 and above)
Female economic activity rate (index, 1990=100, age 15 and above)
Female economic activity rate (as % of male rate, age 15 and above)
Female employment in agriculture (as a % of female labour force)
Male employment in agriculture (as a % of male labour force)
Female employment in industry (as a % of female labour force)
Male employment in industry (as a % of male labour force)
Female employment in services (as a % of female labour force)
Male employment in services (as a % of male labour force)
Female contributing family workers (as % of total)
Male contributing family workers (as % of total)
26 Gender, work burden and time allocation
27 Women's political participation
Year women received right to vote
Year women received right to stand for election
Year first woman elected (E) or appointed (A) to parliament
Women in government at ministerial level (as % of total)
Seats in lower house or single house held by women (as % of total)
Seats in upper house or senate held by women (as % of total)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

HUMAN AND LABOUR RIGHTS INSTRUMENTS
28 Status of major international human rights instruments
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women
Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
Convention on the Rights of the Child
29 Status of fundamental labour rights conventions
Freedom of association and collective bargaining - Convention 87
Freedom of association and collective bargaining - Convention 98
Elimination of forced and compulsory labour - Convention 29
Elimination of forced and compulsory labour - Convention 105
Elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation - Convention 100
Elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation - Convention 111
Abolition of child labour - Convention 138
Abolition of child labour - Convention 182

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

BASIC INDICATORS FOR OTHER UN MEMBER COUNTRIES
30 Basic indicators for other UN member countries

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

MDG Indicators
MDG1 Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger - Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education
Population living below $1 a day (%)
Poverty gap ratio (%)
Share of poorest 20% in national income or consumption (%)
Children under weight for age (% under age 5)
Undernourished people (as % of total population)
Net primary enrolment ratio (%)
Children reaching grade 5 (%)
Youth literacy rate (% age 15-24)
MDG2 Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women
Ratio of girls to boys, in primary education
Ratio of girls to boys, in secondary education
Ratio of girls to boys, in tertiary education
Ratio of literate females to males (age 15-24)
Female share of non-agricultural wage employment (%)
Seats in parliament held by women (as % of total)
MDG3 Goal 4: Reduce child mortality - Goal 5: Improve maternal health
Under-five mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)
Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)
One-year-olds fully immunized against measles (%)
Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births)
Births attended by skilled health personnel (%)
MDG4 Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
HIV prevalence among pregnant women aged 15-24 (%), in major urban areas
HIV prevalence among pregnant women aged 15-24 (%), outside major urban areas
Condom use at last high-risk sex (% age 15-24), female
Condom use at last high-risk sex (% age 15-24), male
Orphans' school attendance rate as % of non-orphans'
Malaria-related mortility rate (per 100,000), all ages
Malaria-related mortility rate (per 100,000), children aged 0-4
Malaria cases (per 100,000 people)
Children under 5 with insecticide-treated bed nets (%)
Children under 5 with fever treated with anti-malarial drugs (%)
Tuberculosis-related mortality rate (per 100,000 people)
Tuberculosis cases (per 100,000 people)
Tuberculosis cases detected under DOTS (%)
Tuberculosis cases cured under DOTS (%)
MDG5 Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability: land and air
Land area covered by forests (%)
Ratio of protected area to surface area
GDP per unit of energy use (PPP US$ per kg of oil equivalent)
Carbon dioxide emissions per capita (metric tons)
Consumption of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (ODP metric tons)
MDG6 Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability: water and sanitation
Population with sustainable access to an improved water source, rural (%)
Population with sustainable access to an improved water source, urban
Urban population with access to improved sanitation (%)
MDG7 Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development: development assistance and market access
MDG8 Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development: landlocked countries and small island developing states
MDG9 Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development: debt sustainability
MDG10 Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development: work opportunities, access to drugs and access to new technologies
Youth unemployment (% of labour force aged 15-24), total
Youth unemployment (% of labour force aged 15-24), female
Youth unemployment (% of labour force aged 15-24), male
Population with sustainable access to affordable essential drugs (%)
Telephone mainlines and cellular subscribers (per 100 people)
Internet users (per 100 people)
Personal computers in use (per 100 people)



Find Report
Year ------------ 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990
Regional/National ------------ GLOBAL Reports ------------ REGIONAL Reports arab states caribbean central africa central america commonwealth of i east africa eastern europe north-east asia other pacific south america south asia south-east asia southern africa west africa ------------ NATIONAL Reports afghanistan albania algeria ana - azania anc - zimbabwe andorra angola anguilla antigua and barbu antilles (french) argentina armenia aruba australia austria azerbaijan bahamas bahrain baltic states (su bangladesh barbados belarus belgium belize benin bermuda bhutan bolivia bosnia and herceg botswana brazil brazil (rio de ja brazil (subin) brunei darussalam bulgaria burkina faso burundi cambodia cameroon canada cape verde caribbean (region cayman islands central african r central america chad chile china cis (regional) colombia comoros congo congo, dem. repub cook islands costa rica cote d'ivoire croatia cuba cyprus czech republic denmark djibouti dominica dominican republi dpr korea east african comm east timor ecuador egypt el salvador equatorial guinea equatorial guinea eritrea estonia ethiopia fiji finland france french overseas t gabon gambia georgia germany ghana gilbert islands global greece grenada guadeloupe guatemala guinea guinea (french) guinea-bissau guyana haiti holy see honduras hong kong hungary iceland india indonesia inter-regional iran iraq ireland israel italy jamaica japan jordan kazakhstan kenya khmer republic kiribati kosovo (autonomou kuwait kyrgyzstan lao latvia lebanon lesotho liberia libyan arab jamah liechtenstein lithuania luxembourg macao macedonia madagascar malawi malaysia maldives mali malta marshall islands martinique mauritania mauritius mexico micronesia moldova monaco mongolia montserrat morocco mozambique myanmar namibia nat liberation mo nauru nepal netherlands netherlands antil new caledonia new hebrides new zealand nicaragua niger nigeria niue norway occupied palestin oman pac - azania pae - zimbabwe pakistan palau panama papua new guinea paraguay patriotic front f peru philippines poland polynesia (french portugal portuguese territ puerto rico qatar republic of vietn reunion romania russian federatio rwanda saint helena saint kitts and n saint lucia saint vincent & g samoa samoa (usa) san marino sao tome and prin saudi arabia senegal seychelles sierra leone sikkim singapore slovak republic slovenia solomon islands somalia south africa south korea south pacific fun spain sri lanka sudan sudan (suba) suriname sw afric people's swaziland sweden switzerland syrian arab repub tajikistan tanzania thailand togo tokelau tonga trinidad and toba tunisia turkey turkmenistan turks and caicos tuvalu uganda ukraine undist - asia & t undist - latin am undist - nat libe undistributed - a undistributed (ot united arab emira united kingdom united states of uruguay uzbekistan vanuatu venezuela viet nam virgin islands (u virgin islands (u wallis and futuna west irian western sahara western samoa yemen yugoslavia zambia zimbabwe
Theme ------------ Civil Society Culture Decentralization Democracy Economic Crisis Economic Growth Economic Reform Education Employment Sustai Environment Food Security Gender General Globalization Governance Health HIV/AIDS Human Rights ICT Inequity Participation Peace & Security Poverty Regional /Rural D Role of State Science & Technol Social Cohesion - Sustainable Human Youth




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HDR2003
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