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Old 12-27-2003, 05:33 PM   #31
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So, despite overwealming evidence, that have been presented from books that have been quoted and UN sources that have been cited, that clearly show Iraq was armed by other nations.... We have to put up with accusations in other threads? I am trying to, with an open mind, find out where people get these ideas.

Respectfully, did I ask for receipts? Sarcasm aside, but I have in other threads, and in this one, done nothing more than asked for CREDIBLE sources and books that I can read.

Now articles that cite mysteriously deleted parts of UN reports, just do not seem too credible to me.

Now for all of the accusations that have been thrown at the US in the threads in this forum....certainly there must be some type of evidence that peope are or have been using?
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Old 12-27-2003, 06:17 PM   #32
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I did mention that I wasn't even aware that the US government denied that (parts needed to manufacture/) weapons had been sold to Iraq for a reason
the reason being that indeed I wasn't actually aware of this
I thought that at least when the US supported Iraq in their war against Iran they provided them with weapons or something
(I don't spent that much time in Free your mind
since english isn't my first language anyway I tend to shy away from it)

I already agreed with the notion that you can't go around accusing people/countries based on no evidence at all
and in the future I will try to see to it that this doesn't happen too often


but, really, it doesnt make a lot of sense - at least to me - to dismiss everything because there isn't conclusive evidence and react to everything that is posted with a "" instead of stating at least why there can't be any truth to what was posted/quoted

neither this nor false accusation lead to a healthy debate
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Old 12-27-2003, 06:47 PM   #33
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I have in other threads, and I believe other people (sting maybe) would agree that in Iraq's fight with Iran, the US did supply Intelligence information as far as troop locations ect.

There has been no material support that weapons were supplied that I have ever been able to uncover and I have read a few books and articles on the topic.

I have also on numerous occasions admitted that the US due to its Cold war positions along with some of its allies, most definititly eased up on Iraq when Iran fell in the 1970's, hoping to gain favor with Saddam.

As for the smiley face......

If you review the thread........It appears ONCE after a response by RONO. I can assure you it was not in response to Rono...and I apologize for that. If you review all of my over 3,000 posts I think you and the other Mods would agree, I have never made it a habit to insult members with smiley faces. This was not my intent here, and I think reviewing the time persiods of the faces, and how they were used in the thread...it shows it.......

I am slightly disappointed that after 3,000 something posts two moderators are lecturing me publicly about smilies....instead of privately....but hey....benefit of the doubt....I guess there is none....

Again....I was told to start a thread by Elvis on the topic.....and I wait for evidence....which now is being derailed.
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Old 12-27-2003, 07:13 PM   #34
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Quote:
Originally posted by Dreadsox
If you review the thread........It appears ONCE after a response by RONO. I can assure you it was not in response to Rono...and I apologize for that. If you review all of my over 3,000 posts I think you and the other Mods would agree, I have never made it a habit to insult members with smiley faces.
yes, I agree
but the entire vibe of this thread somehow seems wrong
to me it seems like it wasn't meant for discussion
but to prove some kind of point
and I don't think that's necesary


we don't mean to single you out
and I apologize if it appears to be this way now
and we're definately not here to lecture you
(I'm even quite sure that angie's post wasn't made as a moderator, but as an interference member)


I hope this thread may lead to some healthy discussion from here on
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Old 12-27-2003, 07:15 PM   #35
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Peace...
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Old 12-30-2003, 06:25 PM   #36
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Got to do the other sides work for them....GRRRRR...

[Q]

Saddam Husseins regime was crushed by the combined military might of American and British forces in a lightning-quick, three-week war. But theres still more work to be done, U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld told reporters at the Pentagon this month.

"We still need to find and secure Iraqs weapons-of-mass-destruction facilities," said Rumsfeld. "We still must find out everything we can about how the Iraqi regime acquired its capabilities, and the proliferation that took place by countries in the industrialized world."

Previous Reports:


Made in the USA Part I: At every turn of the war against Iraq, U.S. and British forces faced weapons systems largely developed and supplied to Iraq by American, European, Russian and Chinese companies. Call it globalization at its worst.


Made in the USA, Part II: Saddam Hussein got a huge boost from officials in the first Bush presidency many of whom now work for George W. Bush who either looked the other way or directly assisted Husseins military buildup. Both the Reagan and Bush I administrations routinely ignored evidence that Iraq was using its weapons of mass destruction.

A glance at his datebook would provide some of the answers. In 1983, Rumsfeld, then a private citizen, traveled to Baghdad to meet with the Iraqi dictator. Rumsfeld delivered President Ronald Reagans personal message of support to Hussein, who was already three years into his eventual eight-year war with Iran. The American envoy also discussed a proposed joint-venture oil pipeline with the Iraqi leader. That project, also championed by the San Franciscobased Bechtel Group, never materialized, but Rumsfelds mission underscored the reality that for more than 30 years the economic interests of American industry were firmly embedded into the geopolitical goals of U.S. policymakers.

Throughout the 1980s, the U.S. Commerce Department approved at least $1.5 billion in exports with possible military applications from U.S. companies to Iraq, and the Agriculture Department administered a U.S.-goverment-guaranteed loan program that provided billions to Iraq. Thanks largely to the first George Bush, American taxpayers unwittingly co-signed for much of the loan money, and the government had to make good on these loans when Iraq later defaulted. Almost all of the transactions were legal under U.S. and international law at the time, even when the transactions either had direct military or dual-use (civilian and military) applications. Over and over again, the deals were encouraged and even abetted by the U.S. government, even after American officials had proof that Iraq was using chemical weapons to kill Iranian troops and subdue Kurdish uprisings. In fact, the Reagan administration and the first Bush administration even provided Husseins regime with military intelligence during his bloody eight-year war with Iran.

American officials tolerated Husseins despotism because they viewed his regime as a secular bulwark against the Islamic fundamentalist revolution spawned by the Iranian revolution. That is, until Iraq invaded oil-rich Kuwait in 1990. Most, though not all, of Iraqs commerce with American companies ended after the first Gulf War in 1991.

Now the business cycle is starting all over again. Last week, the Bechtel corporation received a U.S. Agency for International Development contract to rebuild Iraqs infrastructure. The contract, initially worth $34.6 million, could eventually total nearly $700 million over the next 18 months. Perhaps Bechtels institutional knowledge was a plus, given its status as a major player in Husseins Iraq during the time when doing business with Hussein was endorsed by U.S. policy. At the very least, Bechtels ties to the old regime are not being held against it.

HOW TO NAVIGATE THE LIST:

Click on a company name or U.S. government agency from the list below to go directly to a description of their acknowledged or documented involvement with Iraq.

Some of these businesses are no longer operating. A number of these companies did not respond to the Weeklys calls for comment. All who did denied wrongdoing, even when they confirmed their exports to Iraq. Some companies have since changed hands, and representatives of the new businesses said they had no information on exports by the old firms. Nearly all of the documentation for this list comes from official sources, investigations and multiple interviews with authoritative sources. Some of the source material is presented at the end of the entire list.


Index of American Companies (and international companies with U.S. affiliates):


AT&T
AL HADDAD ENTERPRISES, INC.
ALCOLAC INTERNATIONAL
AMERICAN TYPE CULTURE COLLECTION
ASSOCIATED INSTRUMENTS DISTRIBUTORS, INC.
AXEL ELECTRONICS
BANCA NAZIONALE DEL LAVORO
BECHTEL GROUP
BREEZEVALE, INC.
CANBERRA INDUSTRIES
CARL SCHENCK AG
CARL ZEISS
CATERPILLAR, INC.
COMTEC INTERNATIONAL, INC.
CONSARC
COPELAND INTERNATIONAL, INC.
DATA GENERAL CORP
DEKTOR COUNTERINTELLIGENCE AND SECURITY, INC.
DOW CHEMICAL
DRESSER CONSTRUCTION AND EQUIPMENT
DUPONT
E G & G PRINCETON APPLIED RESEARCH
EASTMAN KODAK CO.
ELECTRONICS ASSOCIATES, INC.
ENTRADE INTERNATIONAL, LTD.
EVAPCO
FINNIGAN MAT US
FOXBORO COMPANY
GERBER SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY
GORMAN-RUPP
HARDINGE BROTHERS
HEWLETT-PACKARD
HIPOTRONICS
HONEYWELL
HUGHES HELICOPTER
IBM
INTERNATIONAL IMAGING SYSTEMS
INTERNATIONAL SIGNAL AND CONTROL
IONICS
KENNAMETAL, INC.
LEYBOLD VACUUM SYSTEMS
LINCOLN ELECTRIC CO.
LITTON INDUSTRIES
LUMMUS CREST, INC.
MBB HELICOPTER CORP.
MACK TRUCKS, INC.
MAHO AG
MATRIX CHURCHILL CORP.
McNEIL AKRON, INC.
MEMPHIS INTERNATIONAL, INC.
MILLER ELECTRIC
MOUSE MASTER
NCR CORPORATION
NRM CORP.
NORWALK CO.
NU KRAFT MERCANTILE CORP.
PERKIN-ELMER CORP.
PHILLIPS EXPORT
POSI SEAL, INC.
PRESRAY CORP.
PURE AIRE
REDLAKE IMAGING CORP.
REXON TECHNOLOGY CORP.
ROCKWELL INTERNATIONAL CORP.
ROTEC INDUSTRIES, INC.
SACKMAN ASSOCIATES
SCIENTIFIC ATLANTA
SCIENTIFIC DESIGN CO., INC.
SEMETEX
SERVAAS, INC.
SIEMENS CORP.
SIP CORP.
SPECTRAL DATA CORP.
SPECTRA PHYSICS
SPERRY CORP.
SULLAIRE CORP.
SWISSCO MANAGEMENT GROUP, INC.
TECHNICAL COMMUNICATIONS CORP.
TEKTRONIX
TELEDYNE WAH CHANG
THERMO JARRELL ASH CORP.
TI COATING
TRADING AND INVESTMENT CORP.
UNION CARBIDE
UNISYS CORP.
VEECO INSTRUMENTS, INC.
WILD MAGNAVOX SATELLITE SURVEY
WILTRON
XYZ OPTIONS, INC.
YORK INTERNATIONAL CORP.
ZETA LABORATORIES
Index of U.S. Government Agencies:

CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION
CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE
DEPARTMENT OF STATE
NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL
U.S. NUCLEAR WEAPONS LABORATORIES


Foreign Companies:
(Number of foreign firms by country note: Some of these firms receive substantial financial support from their governments):

AUSTRIA: 3
BELGIUM: 7
CHINA: 3
EGYPT: 1
FRANCE: 9
GERMANY: 18
GREAT BRITAIN: 24
INDIA: 1
JAPAN: 5
LUXEMBOURG: 1
NETHERLANDS: 3
PORTUGAL: 1
SINGAPORE: 1 (Note: This company, KIM AL-KHALEEJ, also has links to Dubai.)
SPAIN: 3
SWEDEN: 2
SWITZERLAND: 7
USSR/RUSSIA: 6

Partial Source List:


1992 hearing report and transcripts from the Senate Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs: United States Export Policy Toward Iraq Prior to Iraqs Invasion of Kuwait.


Banca Nazionale del Lavoro records of letters of credit and loans issued to Iraq and its corporate exporters.


Reports of United Nations weapons inspectors (UNSCOM) provided to the U.S. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs.


Information from databases compiled by the Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control, a Washington D.C.based nonprofit foundation that monitors the proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons and missile technology.


News articles and op-eds written by Gary Milhollin, director of the Wisconsin Project.


Information from Iraqs 1997 Full, Final and Complete Weapons Declaration to the U.N.UNSCOM, provided by Gary Pitts, a Texas-based attorney suing a number of American and international companies who allegedly supplied Iraq with technology, materials and equipment for its chemical and biological weapons program. Pitts is representing approximately 3,500 Gulf War veterans allegedly suffering from Gulf War syndrome.


Research material and government documents compiled by Washington, D.C.based National Security Archives, a nonprofit research group.


1995 letter from Dr. David Satcher, then the director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to U.S. Senator Donald Riegle (D-Michigan), chair of the Senate Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs. Letter detailed shipments of "viruses, retroviruses, bacteria and fungi" to Iraq by the CDC.


1994 United States General Accounting Office report to the Chairman, Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives Iraq: U.S. Military Items Exported or Transferred to Iraq in the 1980s.


Information compiled by the Washington D.C.based Institute for Science and International Security, a nonprofit, nonpartisan, public education and policy group.


Information from Germs: Biological Weapons and America's Secret War (2001), by Judith Miller, Stephen Engleberg and William Broad.


Congressional testimony of Kenneth Timmerman, author of The Death Lobby: How the West Armed Saddam (1991).


Information from The Death Lobby: How the West Armed Saddam (1991), by Kenneth Timmerman.


Congressional statements by Representative Sam Gejdenson (D-Connecticut), Chair of the House Subcommittee of the Foreign Affairs Committee, 1991.


Congressional statements by Representative Henry Gonzalez (D-Texas), 1991, 1992.


Interviews with Gary Pitts.


Interviews with Andreas Zumach, a Swiss-based reporter for the Berlin newspaper Die Tageszeitung. Zumach was leaked portions of the 2002 Full, Final and Complete Weapons Declaration (UNMOVIC). Zumach published the list of weapons suppliers in a December 2002 series of articles.


Interviews with Jeff Hodges, a former investigator for the House of Representatives Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, chaired in 1991 by Representative John Dingell (D-Michigan).


Interview with Jim Tuite, a former investigator for the U.S. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs, chaired by U.S. Senator Donald Riegle (D-Michigan).


Interviews with government-based and other sources, who requested anonymity.


Web sites and corporate filings for listed companies.


Various other U.S. congressional hearing reports; congressional testimony; government reports; Department of Commerce records; Department of Agriculture records.


Various state-records databases, including information from various Secretary of State offices and Departments of Corporations. [/Q]
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Old 12-30-2003, 06:29 PM   #37
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[Q]
AT&T

(New York City, New York)

2000 Contracted with Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. to "optimize" Huaweis products. Between 2000 and 2001, Huawei outfitted Iraqs air-defense system with fiber-optic equipment, in violation of a U.N. trade embargo.

(return to company index)

AL HADDAD ENTERPRISES, INC.

(Formerly based in Nashville, Tennessee defunct)

1984 to 1985 Company sold 60 tons of DMMP, a material used to make sarin gas, to Iraq. Also provided chemical-production equipment to Iraq. In 1984, customs officials at Kennedy International Airport seized another Al Haddad shipment of 1,100 pounds of potassium fluoride, a chemical used in nerve-gas production. Al Haddad was not charged in this attempted transfer of chemicals, which were destined for Iraqs Ministry of Pesticides. This firm also received letters of credit from BNL (an Italian bank) totaling $134,988 to sell knives and rubber blankets to Technical Corp. for Special Projects, an Iraqi front company. (Note: See Banca Nazionale del Lavoro entry for information about BNLs Iraqi loans and letters of credit.)

The firm was owned by Sahib Abd al-Amir al-Haddad, an Iraqi-born, naturalized American citizen. According to corporate records from Tennessees Department of State, Al Haddad operated a number of registered firms, which are all inactive, dissolved or merged out. These firms included Al Haddad Enterprises, Inc.; A. Saleh & S. Al-Haddad, Inc.; and Al-Haddad Bros. Enterprises, Inc. Recent stories in The New York Times and The Tennessean reported that al-Haddad was arrested in Bulgaria in November 2002 while trying to arrange an arms sale to Iraq. At last report, Al-Haddad, 59, was awaiting extradition to Germany, where he is charged with conspiring in the late 1990s to purchase equipment for the manufacture of a giant Iraqi cannon.

(return to company index)

ALCOLAC INTERNATIONAL, INC

(Formerly located in Baltimore, Maryland. Company was restructured as Alcolac, Inc., and its currently listed as an active Georgia corporation. Companys assets now owned by French-based firm Rhodia, Inc., with U.S. operations based in Cranberry, New Jersey.)

1988 Allegedly sold more than 300 tons of thiodiglycol (precursor material used to make mustard gas) via Nu Kraft Mercantile Corporation, which, according to congressional testimony and media reports, shipped the material to Jordan and then on to Iraq, through Iraqs Industrial Procurement Company. In the same period, Alcolac also shipped thiodiglycol to Iran and pleaded guilty in 1988 to one count of export violations for its Iranian shipments. Alcolac is currently one of the corporate defendants in a Texas civil suit filed on behalf of some 3,500 Gulf War vets allegedly suffering from Gulf War syndrome. The suit initially named 64 American and international companies that allegedly provided Iraq with materials used to develop chemical and biological weapons. However, a number of those companies will likely be sued in European courts, and the current number of defendants is in flux. Ronald Welsh, the attorney representing Alcolac in that suit, denied any company wrongdoing in connection with Iraq and added that he had no "personal knowledge" of any Alcolac shipments of thiodiglycol to Saddam Husseins regime. But U.N. weapons-inspector reports, included in a 1992 Senate Banking Committee hearing on U.S. export policy toward Iraq, identified shipments of thiodiglycol that were sent to Iraq by Alcolac.

A spokesman for the company that now owns Alcolac emphasized that the "alleged illegal infractions" occurred before Alcolac was obtained by the current ownership.

(return to company index)

AMERICAN TYPE CULTURE COLLECTION

(Manassas, Virginia)

1985 to 1989 ATCC is a nonprofit that provides biological products, technical services and educational programs to private industry, government and academia. It sent to Iraq some 70 shipments of deadly germs, which included anthrax bacteria, E. coli bacteria, salmonella bacteria, bacillus megaterium (which causes meningitis), bacillus subtilus and bacillus cereus (which are strains of anthrax), brucella abortus (which causes influenza), brucella melitensis (a bacteria that attacks major organs), clostridum botulinum (a source of botulism), clostridium perfringens (which causes lung failure), clostridium tetani (which causes muscle rigidity), and Francisella tularensis (which causes tularemia).

(return to company index)

ASSOCIATED INSTRUMENTS DISTRIBUTORS, INC.

(Formerly based in Norcross, Georgia)

Date unknown Sold $12,161,502 worth of carbide cutting tools to Iraqs State Machinery Trading Co., a procurement front for military materials and supplies, according to records introduced at a 1992 Senate Banking Committee hearing. The transaction was financed by a letter of credit from BNL (an Italian bank).

In 1992, company president Nash Rehmann told the Atlanta Constitution that the order was destined for the Huteen Establishment, a weapons factory outside of Baghdad. Rehmann elaborated on the transaction in an interview with the Weekly. "I got approval from the Commerce Department for the sale," he said. Rehmann also noted that hed testified before a federal grand jury investigating the BNL loan scandal. (See listing for Banca Nazionale del Lavoro.) "I told them about my sale. They investigated me to see if I was involved in anything illegal, and I was cleared of any wrongdoing by government investigators," he added. "I have nothing to hide, because I did nothing wrong." Rehmann said he closed the company around the time of the first Gulf War.

(return to company index)

AXEL ELECTRONICS

(A former division of General Signal that was based in Jamaica, New York. Axels operations were later sold off and absorbed into other corporate entities.)

1987 Provided $84,000 worth of capacitors capable of powering a firing set for a nuclear weapon to Iraqs Ministry of Industry and Military Industrialization (MIMI). Hussein Kamel, one of Saddam Husseins son-in-laws, ran MIMI. In 1995, Kamel and his brother, also a Hussein son-in-law, left Iraq in 1995 and moved to Jordan. There they briefed U.N. weapons inspectors on Iraqs programs to build weapons of mass destruction, handing over crates of documents. Six months later Kamel, his brother and their families returned to Iraq for a promised amnesty. However, Saddams daughters were forced to divorce their husbands. Then, Kamel and his brother, along with their father, sister and her children, were executed.)

(return to company index)

BANCA NAZIONALE DEL LAVORO

(An Italian international bank owned by the Italian government with U.S. headquarters in New York and a branch in Atlanta, Georgia; current U.S. operations are located in Los Angeles, New York City and Chicago.)

1988 to 1989 Authorized $2.16 billion in loans to Iraq, a portion of which Iraq used for various weapons programs. A portion of the BNL loans to Iraq was guaranteed through the U.S. Agriculture Departments Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC). U.S. taxpayers ended up paying the cost of those loans (and some of these weapons programs) because the CCC had guaranteed repayment. BNL also issued approximately 2,500 letters of credit to Iraqi exporters totaling approximately $800 million. After Iraq defaulted on approximately $850 million in international loans, BNL filed a claim for more than $450 million against the U.S. government in the U.S. Court of Federal Claims. In 1995, the federal government agreed to pay the bank $400 million to settle the claims. Iraq is liable for reimbursing the U.S. Treasury, but repayment is considered unlikely.

The transactions funded by these BNL letters of credit and loans were almost certainly completed, said Jim Tuite, a former investigator for the U.S. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs, in an interview with the Weekly. Some of the transactions were legally questionable from the start. In 1989, federal agents raided the BNL Atlanta branch. Six BNL employees eventually pleaded guilty to charges connected with off-the-books BNL loans to Iraq. The judge in the case also criticized the American policy of encouraging trade with Iraq as a counterweight to Iran. The court found that this policy created a business climate that encouraged BNLs illegal activity.

From 1985 to 1991, the period of the BNL loans, the companys paid "Consulting Board for International Policy" included former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, who also was, during that same time frame, a member of the Presidents Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board.

(return to company index)

BECHTEL GROUP

(San Francisco, California)

1988 to August 1990 Until the invasion of Kuwait, the company served as engineering consultant for a $2 billion Iraqi petrochemical complex, known as Petrochemical Complex 2, near Baghdad. Bechtels contracts were with Iraqs Technical Corp. for Special Projects, an Iraqi front company for military-related projects. Bechtel, a privately owned, multinational corporation, has just won a U.S. Agency for International Development contract to rebuild Iraqs infrastructure. The contract, won without traditional competitive bidding, starts at $34.6 million and could eventually rise to nearly $700 million.

Bechtels ties with former and current U.S. government officials and agencies run deep. George Shultz, the U.S. secretary of state under Reagan, Bechtels former president, is currently on the companys board of directors. Former Reagan Defense Secretary Casper Weinburger was Bechtels general counsel. Reagans head of the Atomic Energy Commission was W. Kenneth Davis, a former Bechtel vice president for nuclear development. Former CIA Director Richard Helms also worked as a Bechtel consultant. President George W. Bush appointed Ross Connelly, former head of Bechtel Investments, as chief operating officer of the Overseas Private Investment Corporation.

Bechtel representatives confirmed the companys past business dealings with Iraq.

(return to company index)

BREEZEVALE, INC.

(Formerly based in Woodbridge, New Jersey)

Date uncertain Received letters of credit totaling more than $5.9 million (from BNL, an Italian bank) to supply tires and tubes for trucks and earthmovers to the Iraqi Trading Company. It is unclear how that heavy equipment was used. But Iraqi Trading Co. was identified by congressional testimony, researchers and media reports as a front company to purchase materials for Iraqs military. Company may have ceased operations.

(return to company index)

CANBERRA INDUSTRIES

(Meriden, Connecticut)

1986 Canberra Industries and Canberra Elektronik GmbH, in Germany, provided $30,000 worth of electronic and computer equipment to the Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission. In 2001, Canberra Industries became part of the newly formed $9 billion Areva Group, created from a merger of two leading companies in the nuclear field. Besides operations in nuclear-related fields, Canberra is now selling Homeland Security technology and equipment.

(return to company index)

CARL SCHENCK AG

(A German company, with various North American branches)

1987 Provided more than $10,000 worth of computers for process control and data evaluation to Saad 16, Iraqs primary missile research-and-development site.

(return to company index)

CARL ZEISS

(A German company with American operations headquartered in Thornwood, New York)

1989 Supplied $105,000 worth of microcomputers to the Iraqi Ministry of Defense, for use with a Zeiss planicomp (digital mapping) system for map-work measurements and calculations of photographic data.

(return to company index)

CATERPILLAR, INC.

(Peoria, Illinois)

Date uncertain Sold $9,902,605 worth of tractors to Iraq. They were used in construction projects involving Iraqs nuclear and Condor II ballistic-missile programs. Purchase was funded by BNL (an Italian bank), according to records compiled for a 1992 Senate Banking Committee report on U.S. export policies prior to Iraqs invasion of Kuwait. Caterpillar currently has a number of contracts with the U.S. Department of Defense to supply the military with heavy equipment.

(return to company index)

COMTEC INTERNATIONAL, INC.

(Formerly based in Englewood, Colorado)

1988 Provided $117,000 worth of frequency synthesizers and equipment used to repair and maintain handheld radios of the Civil Defense Group of the Iraqi Ministry of the Interior, which oversaw the secret police. Also supplied $161,000 worth of radio transmitters and amplifiers used at base stations to communicate with Civil Defense Group units. (In addition, Iraq received a loan for $36 million from BNL, an Italian bank, to buy a mobile satellite-tracking system from Comtech.) In 2002 the company reported an accumulated deficit of nearly $16.5 million. Company may have ceased operations.

(return to company index)

CONSARC

(Ranocas, New Jersey)

1989 to 1990 Contracted to supply high-performance furnaces, valued at $11 million, for making missile parts and melting zirconium, as well as $575,000 worth of numerical-control equipment for use in high-performance furnace systems. Material sold to the Ministry of Industry and Military Industrialization (MIMI), which was responsible for Iraqs nuclear-, conventional-, missile and chemical-weapons programs. Hussein Kamel, one of Saddam Husseins son-in-laws, ran MIMI. In 1995, Kamel and his brother, also a Hussein son-in-law, left Iraq in 1995 and moved to Jordan. There they briefed U.N. weapons inspectors on Iraqs weapons-of-mass-destruction programs, handing over crates of documents. Six months later Kamel, his brother and their families returned to Iraq for a promised amnesty. However, Saddams daughters were forced to divorce their husbands. Kamel and his brother, along with their father, sister and her children, were then executed.

(return to company index)

COPELAND INTERNATIONAL, INC.,

(Now Copeland Corporation, based in Sidney, Ohio. Its a subsidiary of Emerson Electric Co., headquartered in St. Louis, Missouri.)

Date uncertain Received letter of credit for $147,120 from BNL (an Italian bank) to sell air-conditioning compressors to the Iraqi Trading Company, a front group for the Iraqi government. Its unclear what the compressor was used for, but Iraqi Trading was identified by congressional testimony as a front company to purchase materials for Iraqs military. A spokesman for Emerson Electric, which owns Copelands assets, said he has no information on Posi Seals exports to Iraq.

(return to company index)

DATA GENERAL CORP.

(Formerly headquartered in Westboro, Massachusetts. The company was purchased by EMC Corp., based in Hopkinton, Massachusetts.)

1989 Supplied $324,000 worth of computers for mapping and surveying to the Iraqi Ministry of Defense.

(return to company index)

DEKTOR COUNTERINTELLIGENCE AND SECURITY, INC.

(Formerly based in Savannah, Georgia)

1985 Provided more than $38,000 worth of communication equipment to the Iraqi Ministry of the Interior, which oversaw the secret police. According to corporate records from Georgias Secretary of State Office, this company began operations in 1980 and was "administratively dissolved" in 1995.

(return to company index)

DOW CHEMICAL

(Midland, Michigan)

1988 Sold Iraq $1.5 million worth of pesticides. Iraq also received loans for $11,497,000 from BNL (an Italian bank) to buy chemicals and plastics from Dow. Critics have claimed these pesticides could have been used in Iraqs chemical-weapons program. But Dow spokesman Scott Wheeler told the Weekly that none of the pesticides sold to Iraq could be "weaponized." Wheeler also said that Dow Chemical continued to sell "herbicides, fungicides and insecticides" to Iraq until February 2003. All recent sales were evaluated and approved by the U.N. Security Council, and in line with the U.N. trade embargo and sanctions in place since 1991, he added.

(return to company index)

DRESSER CONSTRUCTION AND EQUIPMENT

(Formerly based in Libertyville, Illinois, the company was purchased by Komatsu America Corp., which is based in Vernon Hills, Illinois, and affiliated with Japan-based Komatsu Industries.)

Date unknown Sold 25 wheel loaders worth $4,750,530 to Iraqs State Machinery Trading Co., a procurement front for military supplies and items. The transaction was financed through a letter of credit from BNL (an Italian bank). Information about the transaction came to light during a 1992 Senate Banking Committee hearing.


DUPONT

(Wilmington, Delaware)

1989 Supplied $30,000 worth of fluorinated Krytox vacuum-pump oil used in the Iraqi centrifuge program (which produced materials for the nuclear-weapons program) to the Iraqi State Company for Oil Products. Krytox is a lubricating oil used in vacuum pumps where safety is critical. Michelle Reardon, a spokesperson for Dupont, confirmed the sale of Krytox oil but not its dollar value. "In 1989, Dupont was licensed by the U.S. to sell a specialty lubricant to the Iraqi state-run oil company. Two such shipments were authorized by the U.S. and occurred in 1989," said Reardon. "In the ensuing years and under very different relationships between the countries, these shipments were included in reports from Iraq to the United Nations in 1991 and probably the report for 2002."

(return to company index)

E G & G PRINCETON APPLIED RESEARCH

(Based in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Company was restructured and eventually sold to Ametek Inc., which is headquartered in Paoli, a suburb of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.)

1989 Provided $55,000 worth of radio-spectrum analyzers for spectroscopic molecular analysis to the Iraqi Ministry of Higher Education. Congressional testimony implicated this agencys involvement in Iraqs weapons programs. This equipment could have both scientific and military uses. A spokesperson for Ametek, Inc., said that it purchased the restructured E G & G in December 2001 and that Ametek has no information about E G & Gs past business dealings with Iraq.

(return to company index)

EASTMAN KODAK CO.

(Rochester, New York)

1989 Supplied more than $172,000 worth of equipment to analyze high-speed manufacturing processes for missile-development programs to Iraqs Ministry of Defense. A Kodak spokesperson declined to discuss the companys business dealings with Iraq before the first Gulf War, saying he had no knowledge of this reported sale. "Over the past 30 years, all of the companys sales to Iraq have been in full compliance with U.S. and international law," said Gerard Meuchner. He added that he knows of only one sale to Iraq in the last five years, a supply of medical X-ray film.

(return to company index)

ELECTRONICS ASSOCIATES, INC.

(Formerly based in West Long Branch, New Jersey)

1987 Shipped $449,000 worth of advanced hybrid analog computer systems used in wind-tunnel experiments to Germany for shipment to Iraq via two other companies: MBB Helicopter Corp. and a German firm, Gildemeister Projecta AG, to Saad 16, Iraqs primary missile research-and-development site. Company may have ceased operations.

(return to company index)

ENTRADE INTERNATIONAL, LTD.

(Formerly based in New York City firm appears to be defunct.)

Date uncertain During the 1980s, this company operated as an American subsidiary of a Turkish company named Enka. According to the Justice Department, company official Yavuz Tezeller allegedly conspired with a bank officer to defraud BNL (an Italian bank) through fraudulent loans and letters of credit. In one allegedly phony deal, Entrade received a BNL letter of credit, according to congressional records, to sell 300 tons of worsted yarn to the Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission. Entrade would then present sham orders from Iraq for agricultural or consumer goods to BNL to get financing for military equipment or materials. Investigators were allegedly pressured to limit fallout from the BNL investigation, because the first Bush administration had backed loan guarantees to Iraq. ThenAttorney General William Barr would not allow Justice Department lawyers to go to Turkey to interview Tezeller, effectively ending the federal investigation of him.

(return to company index)

EVAPCO

(Taneytown, Maryland)

Date uncertain Supplied ion-exchange equipment, dollar amount not specified, for use in Iraqs chemical-weapons program, according to records from U.N. weapons inspectors that were cited in the 1992 Senate Banking Committee hearing on U.S. export policy toward Iraq prior to its invasion of Kuwait.

(return to company index)

FINNIGAN MAT US,

(Now called Thermo Finnigan MAT, based in Germany, with various U.S. locations)

1985 to 1988 Manufactured at least two mass spectrometers for Iraqs nuclear program. U.N. inspectors found the two spectrometers during the 1990s. Company also supplied equipment used for work with gasses and solids in research related to the nuclear-weapons program. And Finnigan provided $1.14 million worth of computers and mass spectrometers for nuclear research to the University of Mosul, a procurement agent for Saad 16, Iraqs primary missile research-and-development site.

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FOXBORO COMPANY

(Based in Foxboro, Massachusetts, its now a subsidiary of Invensys Systems, Inc.)

1985 to 1986 Sold more than $742,000 worth of computing equipment to the State Company for Oil Products, Baghdad.

(return to company index)

GERBER SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY

(Now known as Gerber Technology, based in Tolland, Connecticut)

1988 Provided more than $367,000 worth of computers, to program and run computer-controlled milling and turning machine tools to the Iraqi Ministry of Industry and Military Industrialization (MIMI), which oversaw Iraqs nuclear, missile and chemical-weapons programs. (return to company index)

GORMAN-RUPP CO.

(Mansfield, Ohio)

Date uncertain Supplied motors found in the first round of U.N. inspections in the 1990s that were used in Iraqs chemical-weapons program. The company, however, takes issue with this finding, despite documentation from a 1992 Senate Banking Committee hearing. "We make pumps, not motors," said company president Tom Gorman. "I know about this report. Ive had discussions with [the weapons inspectors] about it. And we had investigators from either the Commerce Department or Customs come out to our offices and do an investigation. But they couldnt clear up the confusion either." Gorman claimed that his company was ultimately cleared. "As far as I know, we didnt sell to Iraq, but something could have slipped through over the last 30 years. Anything is possible," he said.

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HARDINGE BROTHERS

(Now known as Hardinge, Inc., based in Elmira, New York)

Date uncertain Manufactured a super-precision turning lathe found by U.N. inspectors at Al Atheer, Iraqs nuclear-weapons design-and-research center. A lathe would be used in the production of nuclear centrifuges, which are high-speed machines used to separate heavier uranium molecules from lighter ones. U.N. weapons inspectors destroyed the lathe in the first round of inspections.

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HEWLETT-PACKARD

(Palo Alto, California)

1985 to 1990 Supplied $96,000 worth of computers to design and manufacture molds to the Nassr State Enterprise for Mechanical Industries. Nassr procured Scud-enhancement equipment for the Taji chemical-munitions site. Nassr also procured and produced equipment for Iraqs nuclear program and artillery plants. In addition, Hewlett-Packard provided more than $690,000 worth of computer equipment and frequency synthesizers to the Ministry of Industry and Military Industrialization (MIMI), responsible for Iraqs nuclear-, conventional-, missile and chemical-weapons programs.

Other contracts: $254,000 worth of frequency synthesizers for developing surveillance radar; $834,000 worth of computers for engineering applications and cryptographic and related equipment to the Ministry of Oil; $25,000 worth of electronic-testing and computer-graphics equipment to the Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission, which was responsible for nuclear-weapons research. Also, through German firm Messerschmidt Bolkow Blowm (Iraqs main missile-technology supplier), sold more than $600,000 worth of testing and measurement equipment and general-purpose computers for developing and testing radar antennas, radio-spectrum analyzers and optical-fiber cable for use in labs at Saad 16, Iraqs missile research-and-development center.

Also provided three computers for operating machine tools, which were discovered by U.N. inspectors at Al Rabiya, a manufacturing site for enriched uranium. (Hewlett-Packard also obtained letters of credit from BNL [an Italian bank] totaling $326,000 to sell computer-systems hardware and software to the Iraqi Trading Company, a front group for the Iraqi government. Iraq, in turn, received a BNL loan for $142,055 to buy spare parts from Hewlett-Packard.)

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HIPOTRONICS

(Brewster, New York)

1989 Sold nine power-supply units worth $287,000 key equipment used in Iraqs nuclear-weapons program.

(return to company index)

HONEYWELL

(Morristown, New Jersey)

1984 to 1988 Provided more than $353,000 worth of computers to monitor heating, ventilation and air conditioning to the Iraqi Ministry of Industry and Military Industrialization (MIMI), which supervised nuclear-, conventional-, missile and chemical-weapons programs. Also prepared for Iraq a feasibility study and design data for a fuel-air explosive warhead for ballistic missiles.

Honeywell also sold compasses, gyroscopes and accelerometers to Iraqi Airways, listed by the U.S. Department of Justice as a front company for military procurement. These components could be used for building ballistic missiles. In addition, Honeywell supplied a "process flow controller" used in Iraqs chemical-weapons program.

Richard Silverman, a spokesman for Honeywell, declined comment on the companys business dealings with Iraq during the 1980s. "Honeywell has been, and continues to be, in compliance with all U.S. export-control laws and with U.S. sanctions against Iraq," said Silverman.

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HUGHES HELICOPTER

(Was based in Culver City, California. The company is now called MD Helicopters, Inc., and is based in Mesa, Arizona, after being sold in 1984 to McDonnell Douglas.)

1983 Supplied Iraq with 60 civilian helicopters, eventually modified for military use. Sale approved by Reagan administration.

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IBM

(Armonk, New York)

2000 Provided switches, chips and processing technology to Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd., a Chinese maker of communications networks. Between 2000 and 2001, Huawei outfitted Iraqs air-defense system with fiber-optic equipment in violation of the U.N. embargo. Huawei also bought Commerce Departmentapproved supercomputers not only from IBM but also Digital Equipment Corporation and Hewlett-Packard.

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INTERNATIONAL IMAGING SYSTEMS

(Formerly located in Milpitas, California)

1981 to 1990 Sales to Iraq included $28,000 worth of electronic-imaging equipment to Iraqi Directorate General for purpose of enhancing satellite photos used in reconnaissance or missile targeting; more than $295,000 worth of electronic image-enhancement equipment to the Iraqi Space and Astronomy Research Center; $693,000 worth of infrared image-enhancement equipment for aerial reconnaissance and missile tracking to the University of Mosul, a procurement arm for Saad 16, Iraqs primary missile research-and-development site. Records from Californias Secretary of State office indicate this company began operations in 1980 and has since been dissolved.

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INTERNATIONAL SIGNAL AND CONTROL CORP.

(Formerly located in Lancaster, Pennsylvania company defunct.)

1984 to 1989 ISC supplied, via Chilean arms dealer Carlos Cardoen, cluster-bomb technology and blueprints to build a cluster-bomb factory in Iraq. Cardoen is now on the run from a federal warrant for illegally exporting weapons to Iraq. ISCs technology and blueprints were allegedly used to build a factory in Iraq to manufacture electronic fuses. James Guerin, now serving a 15-year sentence in federal prison in connection with illegal arms exports and other crimes, founded ISC. Some of the arms shipments made were diverted to Iraq. Before Guerin was exposed he later pleaded guilty in criminal proceedings in 1992 ISC was purchased by Ferranti International, a British company. Ferranti was forced into receivership because of the ensuing financial losses.

Guerin had filled his company with ex-U.S. military and intelligence officers. During the Ford administration, Guerin began illegally selling arms to South Africa as part of an intelligence operation in which the South African military agreed to spy on Soviet ships off its coast. (President Jimmy Carter later terminated the ISC-South African covert operation.) A former deputy CIA director, Admiral Bobby Inman, then head of Naval Intelligence, served as the liaison between Guerin and the U.S. government. And it was publicity about Inmans connections to Guerin that ultimately cost him the chance to become CIA director.

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IONICS

(Watertown, Massachusetts)

Date Uncertain Ionics supplied a water-demineralization plant and pumping station costing $1,780,000 to the State Establishment for Heavy Engineering Equipment (SEHEE), a front for Iraqs nuclear-weapons program. Deal was financed with a letter of credit from BNL (an Italian bank). Ionics also supplied SEHEE with a water-desalination plant costing $1,375,000, financed by a BNL loan. These transactions were documented in a 1992 hearing by the Senate Banking Committee.

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KENNAMETAL, INC.

(Latrobe, Pennsylvania)

1987 to 1990 Sold $900,000 worth of metalworking products to Iraq, including $81,917 to Al Kadisya State Establishment, a manufacturing program specializing in metallurgy. The Atlanta branch of BNL (an Italian bank) financed the deals. In a written statement, the company acknowledged sales of "approximately $900,000 of products that were used to tool machines some of those machines ended up in Iraq." But "all of the sales were in full compliance with the laws at the time and had been approved in advance and licensed by the British government," stated Riz Chand, Kennametals vice president of Human Resources and Corporate Relations. He also stated that two separate U.S. government reviews "found that Kennametal made no illegal exports and no charges were filed."

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LEYBOLD VACUUM SYSTEMS

(A German company with U.S. subsidiary based in Export, Pennsylvania)

1988 to 1989 Sold electron-beam welder, valued at $880,000, used to assemble centrifuges for enriching uranium and for the repair of military jet engines and rocket cases, to the Nassr State Enterprise for Mechanical Industries. Welder was shipped via German parent company, Leybold. Also sold a machine valued at $530,000 to operate the welder. Later installed machinery that doubled the size of the original.

(return to company index)

LINCOLN ELECTRIC CO.

(Cleveland, Ohio)

Date uncertain Supplied welding machines via company called Matrix Churchill, which were used to build Iraqi missile factories, according to U.N. inspectors. Received letter of credit for $840,000 from BNL (an Italian bank) to sell machines and supplies to Al Fao State Establishment, a military industrial facility. The equipment was used for Iraqs nuclear and Condor II ballistic missile weapons programs. According to the 1992 Senate Banking Committee hearing report on U.S. exports to Iraq prior to its invasion of Kuwait, Lincoln also supplied two welding machines worth $513,994 (also financed by BNL) to Iraqs State Machinery Trading Company for use in Iraqs nuclear and Condor II ballistic-missile weapons programs.

(return to company index)


LITTON INDUSTRIES

(Formerly based in Beverly Hills, California. Purchased in 2001 by Northrop Grumman, which is based in Los Angeles, California.)

1984 to 1989 Helped bankroll German firms Gildemeister Projecta AG and Gipro, the main contractor for Saad 16, Iraqs primary missile research-and-development site. Litton maintained a 14.3 percent share in Gildemeister throughout the life of its contract with Saad 16.

(return to company index)

LUMMUS CREST, INC.

(Bloomfield, New Jersey now part of ABB Global, Inc., a Swiss conglomerate with U.S. headquarters in Norwalk, Connecticut.)

1985 to 1989 Provided more than $250,000 worth of radio-spectrum analyzers. Also provided computers for inventory, quality control, lab analysis and engineering calculations to Iraqs Ministry of Industry and Military Industrialization (MIMI). The equipment was used for Iraqs multibillion-dollar petrochemical complex at Basra to make thiodiglycol, a chemical used in the manufacture of mustard gas. Lummus also received letters of credit for $53,827,776 from BNL (an Italian bank) to sell machinery and supplies to the Technical Corps for Special Projects, an Iraqi front company, according to documentation provided for a 1992 Senate Banking Committee hearing.

(return to company index)


MBB HELICOPTER CORP.

(Formerly located in West Chester, Pennsylvania)

1989 Provided more than $957,000 worth of compasses, gyroscopes and accelerometers to the Iraqi Air Force. According to records from Pennsylvanias Department of State, this company was registered as a "foreign business corporation." MBB Helicopter Corporation began operations in 1979. Its last Pennsylvania filing was dated 1988. Company may have ceased operations.

(return to company index)

MACK TRUCKS, INC.

(Allentown, Pennsylvania Mack Trucks, Inc., is now a subsidiary of AB Volvo, based in Sweden.)

Date uncertain According to a 1992 Senate hearing report, Mack Trucks supplied $6,038,488 worth of truck parts, tractors, wreckers, trucks with cranes and dumpers to Iraq for use in building its nuclear and Condor II ballistic-missile programs. Deals financed by BNL (an Italian bank).

(return to company index)

MAHO AG

(A German company that has become part of the Gildemeister Group, which is based in Bielefeld, Germany. Has various U.S. plants.)

Date uncertain Manufactured three milling machines found by U.N. inspectors, in first round of inspections, to have been used in Iraqi nuclear-weapons program.

(return to company index)

MATRIX CHURCHILL CORP.

(Formerly located in Cleveland, Ohio company defunct)

1988 to 1990 Constructed in Iraq a glass-fiber production plant, which made missile rocket-motor casings. Plant built at Nassr State Establishment, was known as Project 3128. And with the company XYZ Options, Matrix Churchill constructed at Al Atheer, Iraqs nuclear weapons design-and-research center, a $14 million plant used to produce high-precision tungsten carbide tools for Iraqs nuclear program. The plant, financed by Italian banking giant Banca Nazionale del Lavoro (BNL), was completed in 1990, but later destroyed under first U.N. inspection program. Matrix Churchill, along with other U.S. and European firms, was part of a complicated Iraqi arms-procurement network, controlled by the Iraqi entity TECO or Techcorp, officially called the Technical Corps for Special Projects. TECO was a sub-unit of Iraqs Ministry of Industry and Military Industrialization. TECO also ran Al-Arabi Trading Co., a front for Iraqs biological-weapons program. Matrix Churchill also received a letter of credit for $81 million from BNL to supply machinery and other supplies to TECO and a letter of credit for $2,345,300 to sell precious metals to Nassr State Enterprises for Mechanical Industries, which procured equipment for Iraqs missile program.

[/Q]
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Old 12-31-2003, 10:18 PM   #38
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According to the 12.000 Pages report from Bagdad to unmovic the USA and Germany sold the most weapons to Iraq. Most of them were declared as dual use by the sellers like the 72 "Bell-" und "Hughes"- Helicopters who were used in 1988 in Halabdscha (5000 civilists were killed).
Before that the Pentagon helped the Iraq with inteligence reports to use the WMDs against Iran more efficently. NYTimes qoted a veteran of DIA that he wasn't that shocked about it and a bullet or phosgen is no big difference, just another way to kill people.

You can find more infos at globalsecurity.org


Here: http://www.gulflink.osd.mil/medsearc...port_main.html

you can find reports about the United States Duel-Use Exports to Iraq and Their Imapct on the Health of the Persian Gulf War Veterans.

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Old 12-31-2003, 11:03 PM   #39
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How about Conventional weapons?
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Old 01-01-2004, 03:34 AM   #40
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Quote:
Originally posted by Dreadsox
How about Conventional weapons?
Maybe the Russian weapons are cheaper.
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Old 01-01-2004, 03:31 PM   #41
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Klaus,

Dual use technology was NOT sold by the US government.

Conventional equiptment was not sold by the US governement.
The helecopters were not sold in a military configuration to Iraq, and were modified. You cannot hold the US repsonsible for modifications made by Iraq to equiptment.

Statements like the ones you made above are a bit misleading. I have read the report you linked to. Your statement, while accurate about US companies providing Agricultural Technology which could be used as dual use/military it would be innacurate to say that the US and Germany were the number one countries in arming Iraq when in fact.....

France, Germany, Russia, China, and North Korea had more to do with conventional and nonconvention than anything the US did.

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Old 01-01-2004, 05:10 PM   #42
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The U.S. Winked at Hussein's Evil
Robert Scheer

December 30, 2003

Sometimes democracy works. Though the wheels of accountability often grind slowly, they also can grind fine, if lubricated by the hard work of free-thinking citizens. The latest example: the release of official documents, obtained under the Freedom of Information Act, that detail how the U.S. government under presidents Ronald Reagan and George H.W. Bush nurtured and supported Saddam Hussein despite his repeated use of chemical weapons.

The work of the National Security Archive, a dogged organization fighting for government transparency, has cast light on the trove of documents that depict in damning detail how the United States, working with U.S. corporations including Bechtel, cynically and secretly allied itself with Hussein's dictatorship. The evidence undermines the unctuous moral superiority with which the current American president, media and public now judge Hussein, a monster the U.S. actively helped create.

The documents make it clear that were the trial of Hussein to be held by an impartial world court, it would prove an embarrassing two-edged sword for the White House, calling into question the motives of U.S. foreign policy. If there were a complete investigation into those who aided and abetted Hussein's crimes against humanity, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld and former Secretary of State George Shultz would probably end up as material witnesses.

It was Rumsfeld and Shultz who told Hussein and his emissaries that U.S. statements generally condemning the use of chemical weapons would not interfere with relations between secular Iraq and the Reagan administration, which took Iraq off the terrorist-nations list and embraced Hussein as a bulwark against fundamentalist Iran. Ironically, the U.S supported Iraq when it possessed and used weapons of mass destruction and invaded it when it didn't.

It was 20 years ago when Shultz dropped in on a State Department meeting between his top aide and a high-ranking Hussein emissary. Back then the Iraqis, who were fighting a war with Iran, were our new best friends in the Mideast. Shultz wanted to make it crystal clear that U.S. criticism of the use of chemical weapons was just pablum for public consumption, meant as a restatement of a "long-standing policy, and not as a pro-Iranian/anti-Iraqi gesture," as State's Lawrence S. Eagleburger told Hussein's emissary. "Our desire and our actions to prevent an Iranian victory and to continue the progress of our bilateral relations remain undiminished," Eagleburger continued, according to the then highly classified transcript of the meeting.

The Shultz/Eagleburger meeting took place between two crucial visits by Rumsfeld, acting as a Reagan emissary, to Hussein to offer unconditional support for the Iraqi leader in his war with Iran. In the first meeting, in December 1983, Rumsfeld told Hussein that the United States would assist in building an oil pipeline from Iraq to Aqaba, Jordan. He made no mention of chemical weapons, even though U.S. intelligence only months earlier had confirmed that Iraq was using such illegal weapons almost daily against Iranians and Kurds.

That administration's eye was not on the carnage from chemical weapons but rather the profit to be obtained from the flow of oil. In a later meeting with an Iraqi representative, as recorded in the minutes, "Eagleburger explained that because of the participation of Bechtel in the Aqaba pipeline, the Secretary of State [Shultz] is keeping completely isolated from the issue. Iraq should understand that this does not imply a lack of high-level [U.S. government] interest." (Shultz had been chief executive of Bechtel before joining the Reagan administration and is currently a director of the company, which is signing contracts for work in Iraq as fast as U.S. taxes can be allocated.)

Minutes of that meeting and others in which the United States ignored Hussein's use of banned weapons while extending support to the dictator mock the moral high ground assumed by George W. Bush in defense of his invasion. If, as Bush II says, Hussein acted as a "Hitler" while "gassing his own people," during the 1980s, we were fully aware and implicitly approving, via economic and military aid, of his most nefarious deeds.

Hussein's crimes were committed on our watch, when he was a U.S. ally, and we knowingly looked the other way. But don't take my word for it; check out .
http://www.nsarchive.org
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Old 01-01-2004, 07:27 PM   #43
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Any conventional weapons to add to this debate or chemical wepaons that the US Government sold? This is kind of old news, and irrelevant to the thread.
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Old 01-02-2004, 06:48 AM   #44
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Dreadsox:

I just read your first post, so sorry that i picked WMDs and not conventional weapons.
Afik most of the conventional weapons were from the USSR.
When the Shah (nice word for a dictator) of Iran got all the weapons from the US Iraq bought huge amounts of conventional weapons from USSR. Later the religious rightwings of Iran got the power, the US pushed Iraq, but mainly with WMDs and knowhow.
The helicopters to spread the WMDs could be called conventional weapons.
Germany mostly sold the equipment to produce these new WMDs with the US knowhow.
I think (i'd like to read stings opinion to it) it would have been inefficient to replace all the conventional weapon systems when you don't have much time to prepare for war, that's what i think why they stayed with the russian technology for the traditional weapons and just added western technology where they didn't have to replace their huge weapons arsenal.

Anyway, i think it was a huge mistake of Germany and the US to sell the WMD knowhow, -technology and -plants.

And also it's old news it's not irrelevant. These WMDs (which were sold by our countries)were the reason for the war we are talking about.

If someone has the time and the chance to read the 12.000 pages report of Iraq to Unmovic i'm sure he will find lots of interesting exports by our noble countries.

Klaus
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Old 01-02-2004, 09:08 AM   #45
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Dreadsox:


If someone has the time and the chance to read the 12.000 pages report of Iraq to Unmovic i'm sure he will find lots of interesting exports by our noble countries.

Klaus
Klaus can you give me the direct link....
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