Circumcision could save your life - U2 Feedback

Go Back   U2 Feedback > Lypton Village > Free Your Mind > Free Your Mind Archive
Click Here to Login
 
 
Thread Tools Search this Thread Display Modes
 
Old 12-13-2006, 01:51 PM   #1
New Yorker
 
gherman's Avatar
 
Join Date: Sep 2000
Location: Ann Arbor, MI, USA
Posts: 2,525
Local Time: 12:59 AM
Circumcision could save your life

A new breakthough study shows that being circumcized can lower you chance of contracting of contracting HIV by greater than 50%. This could be huge in Africa and the rest of the world.

WASHINGTON - Circumcising adult men may cut in half their risk of getting the AIDS virus through heterosexual intercourse, the U.S. government announced Wednesday, as it shut down two studies in Africa testing the link.

The National Institutes of Health closed the studies in Kenya and Uganda early, when safety monitors took a look at initial results this week and spotted the protection. The studies' uncircumcised men are being offered the chance to undergo the procedure.

The link between male circumcision and HIV prevention was noted as long ago as the late 1980s. The first major clinical trial, of 3,000 men in South Africa, found last year that circumcision cut the HIV risk by 60 percent.

Still, many AIDS specialists had been awaiting the NIH's results as a final confirmation.

"Male circumcision can lower both an individual's risk of infection, and hopefully the rate of HIV spread through the community," said AIDS expert Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the NIH's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

But it's not perfect protection, Fauci stressed. Men who become circumcised must not quit using condoms nor take other risks - and circumcision offers no protection from HIV acquired through anal sex or injection drug use, he noted.

"It's not a magic bullet, but a potentially important intervention," agreed Dr. Kevin De Cock of the World Health Organization.

Male circumcision is common at birth in the United States. But in sub-Saharan Africa, home to more than half of the world's almost 40 million HIV-infected people, there are large swaths of populations where male circumcision is rare.

The WHO plans an international meeting early next year to discuss the studies' results and how to translate them into policies that promote safe male circumcision - done by trained health workers with sterile equipment - while teaching men that it won't make them invulnerable.

Why would male circumcision play a role? Cells in the foreskin of the penis are particularly susceptible to the HIV virus, Fauci explained. Also, the foreskin is more fragile than the tougher skin surrounding it, providing a surface that the virus could penetrate more easily.

Researchers enrolled 2,784 HIV-negative men in Kisumu, Kenya, and 4,996 HIV-negative men in Rakai, Uganda, into the studies. Some were circumcised; others were just monitored.

Over two years, 22 of the circumcised Kenyans became infected with HIV compared with 47 uncircumcised men, a 53 percent reduction. In Uganda, 22 circumcised men became infected vs. 43 of the uncircumcised, a 48 percent reduction.

The researchers are offering all of the studies' uncircumcised men the chance to undergo the procedure, and 80 percent of the uncircumcised Ugandans already have agreed, said lead researcher Ronald Gray of Johns Hopkins University.

Side effects were rare, including some mostly mild infections that were easily treated. The rate of side effects was comparable to those seen in circumcised U.S. infants, said Robert Bailey of the University of Illinois at Chicago, who led the Kenyan trial.
__________________

__________________
gherman is offline  
Old 12-13-2006, 01:52 PM   #2
ONE
love, blood, life
 
Join Date: May 2002
Location: Tempe, Az USA
Posts: 12,856
Local Time: 04:59 PM
interesting.

dbs
__________________

__________________
diamond is offline  
Old 12-13-2006, 02:25 PM   #3
Blue Crack Addict
 
DaveC's Avatar
 
Join Date: Aug 2002
Location: illegitimi non carborundum
Posts: 17,393
Local Time: 06:59 PM
I'm not sure how I feel about this.

One the one hand, I say circumcision is mutilation - the removal from the body of perfectly healthy tissue for very little medical purpose.

On the other hand, if it actually could reduce the incidence of AIDS, it might be worth investigating further.

__________________
DaveC is online now  
Old 12-13-2006, 02:39 PM   #4
Blue Crack Supplier
 
Irvine511's Avatar
 
Join Date: Dec 2003
Location: Washington, DC
Posts: 30,475
Local Time: 06:59 PM
the reason why it helps prevent the transmission of HIV from female-to-male is because vaginal secretions are less likely to get trapped in the urethra after intercourse and because the uncircumsized head of a penis is much, much more delicate, and thus more likely to tear, than a desensitized circumsized head.

it makes lots of sense.

but if one wears a condom, it won't make a difference at all, and there's no question that circumcision reduces a man's sexual pleasure and is a form of mutilation and has it's roots in Victorian notions of sexuality where masturbation had to be discouraged.
__________________
Irvine511 is offline  
Old 12-13-2006, 02:47 PM   #5
Blue Crack Addict
 
DaveC's Avatar
 
Join Date: Aug 2002
Location: illegitimi non carborundum
Posts: 17,393
Local Time: 06:59 PM
Quote:
Originally posted by Irvine511
but if one wears a condom, it won't make a difference at all
We have a winner!

We're perfectly willing to mutilate our own children, but the idea that they might have sex before they get married is the horrifying theory.

Christ, this world is fucked up.
__________________
DaveC is online now  
Old 12-13-2006, 02:52 PM   #6
Refugee
 
all_i_want's Avatar
 
Join Date: Dec 2004
Posts: 1,180
Local Time: 02:59 AM
Quote:
Originally posted by Irvine511
the reason why it helps prevent the transmission of HIV from female-to-male is because vaginal secretions are less likely to get trapped in the urethra after intercourse and because the uncircumsized head of a penis is much, much more delicate, and thus more likely to tear, than a desensitized circumsized head.

it makes lots of sense.

but if one wears a condom, it won't make a difference at all, and there's no question that circumcision reduces a man's sexual pleasure and is a form of mutilation and has it's roots in Victorian notions of sexuality where masturbation had to be discouraged.
Umm.. i dont mind having been circumcised.
__________________
all_i_want is offline  
Old 12-13-2006, 02:54 PM   #7
ONE
love, blood, life
 
Join Date: May 2002
Location: Tempe, Az USA
Posts: 12,856
Local Time: 04:59 PM
i did not realized i was desensitized down there.



dbs
__________________
diamond is offline  
Old 12-13-2006, 03:15 PM   #8
Blue Crack Addict
 
DaveC's Avatar
 
Join Date: Aug 2002
Location: illegitimi non carborundum
Posts: 17,393
Local Time: 06:59 PM
Quote:
Originally posted by all_i_want
Umm.. i dont mind having been circumcised.
I bet you sure did when you were having it done.

Quote:
Originally posted by diamond
i did not realized i was desensitized down there.



dbs
Well, you are. Simple scientific fact. You've got nothing else to compare the feeling to (unless you had it done as an adult), so "desensitized" is a relative term.
__________________
DaveC is online now  
Old 12-13-2006, 03:47 PM   #9
Blue Crack Supplier
 
Irvine511's Avatar
 
Join Date: Dec 2003
Location: Washington, DC
Posts: 30,475
Local Time: 06:59 PM
Quote:
Originally posted by all_i_want


Umm.. i dont mind having been circumcised.


spend some, um, time with an uncircumsized man.

there is a difference.



(and, scientificallly, the male foreskin is filled with nerve endings and it's job is to protect the head of the penis; uncircumsized heads of penises are much, much more sensitive than circumsized heads which have spent a lifetime chafing against underware)

(it's fun to write about penises)
__________________
Irvine511 is offline  
Old 12-13-2006, 03:51 PM   #10
Blue Crack Supplier
 
Irvine511's Avatar
 
Join Date: Dec 2003
Location: Washington, DC
Posts: 30,475
Local Time: 06:59 PM
Quote:
Originally posted by diamond
i did not realized i was desensitized down there.




__________________
Irvine511 is offline  
Old 12-13-2006, 04:10 PM   #11
The Fly
 
AttnKleinkind's Avatar
 
Join Date: Jan 2005
Posts: 181
Local Time: 11:59 PM
I'm glad this isn't an issue for me, being a woman and all, because if my parents had cut off some very valuable nerve endings when I had no say in it....I would be pissed.
__________________
AttnKleinkind is offline  
Old 12-13-2006, 05:34 PM   #12
Blue Crack Addict
 
anitram's Avatar
 
Join Date: Mar 2001
Location: NY
Posts: 16,277
Local Time: 06:59 PM
Quote:
Originally posted by DaveC

We're perfectly willing to mutilate our own children, but the idea that they might have sex before they get married is the horrifying theory.

Christ, this world is fucked up.
But we are talking about Africa, not "our children." The reality of the matter is that condoms aren't readily available and on the other hand, they are not really affordable, and on the yet other hand, infrastructure in Africa isn't such where you can ensure condoms will be distributed.

So it's a completely different context we're looking at here.

Quote:
has it's roots in Victorian notions of sexuality where masturbation had to be discouraged.
Except that it's a couple of thousand years older than that (at least).
__________________
anitram is online now  
Old 12-13-2006, 06:09 PM   #13
Blue Crack Supplier
 
Irvine511's Avatar
 
Join Date: Dec 2003
Location: Washington, DC
Posts: 30,475
Local Time: 06:59 PM
Quote:
Originally posted by anitram

Except that it's a couple of thousand years older than that (at least).

in a Western/North American context, circumcision was encouraged to discourage masturbation.

amongst, say, people thousands of years ago, it was for cleanliness -- urinary tract infections are a bitch.
__________________
Irvine511 is offline  
Old 12-13-2006, 07:50 PM   #14
Blue Crack Addict
 
U2democrat's Avatar
 
Join Date: Aug 2004
Location: England by way of 'Murica.
Posts: 22,140
Local Time: 11:59 PM
Quote:
Originally posted by Irvine511


(it's fun to write about penises)

Especially when that penis belongs to daniel craig...


Ahem...feel free to continue the discussion
__________________
U2democrat is offline  
Old 12-13-2006, 08:18 PM   #15
War Child
 
Ormus's Avatar
 
Join Date: Aug 2001
Location: Frontios
Posts: 758
Local Time: 07:59 PM
Ah yes. The semi-annual "Circumcision cures everything" thread. I figure I'll crack out some reading material this time, instead of repeating myself:

http://www.salon.com/mwt/feature/1998/10/26feature.html

Quote:
Research into circumcision's history suggests that it dates back to around 3000 B.C., when it was performed in ancient Egypt as a mark of slavery and as a religious rite. Aside from Jews and Muslims, however, people considered circumcision to be a repugnant form of genital mutilation, and both the Greeks and Romans passed laws forbidding its practice. Thus, for a few millennia at least, most men worldwide enjoyed the virtues of an intact penis. In fact, routine circumcision didn't take off in America until the Victorian era, and didn't reach cruising altitude until the Cold War years, when technology, medicine and big business came together in the interest of institutionalized birthing.

The systematic removal of the foreskin owes its ubiquity in America to one man named Dr. Lewis Sayre, once known as the "Columbus of the prepuce" by his colleagues. In 1870, Sayre drew a correlation between the foreskin and an orthopedic malady in a young boy. Through a series of bizarre medical experiments, Sayre and his colleagues eventually determined that links existed between the foreskin and a vast range of ailments that included gout, asthma, hernias, epilepsy, rheumatism, curvature of the spine, tuberculosis and elephantiasis. But what drove circumcision deeper into the bedrock of pediatric medicine was the strident belief that masturbation, thought to be the root of everything from bed-wetting to intractable forms of insanity and mental retardation, could be "cured" with circumcision.

Dr. Peter Charles Remondino, a well-known physician, public health official and champion of universal circumcision, typified the Zeitgeist. Remondino wrote that the foreskin, which he referred to as an "unyielding tube" and "a superfluity," made the intact male "a victim to all manner of ills, sufferings ... and other conditions calculated to weaken him physically, mentally, and morally; to land him, perchance, in jail, or even in a lunatic asylum."

Dr. John Harvey Kellogg, a well-known fundamentalist health reformer and medical journalist (his 1888 "Plain Facts for Old and Young" included roughly 100 pages dedicated to "Secret Vice [Solitary or Self Abuse]") who went on to create the world's preeminent corn flake, was more direct in his approach. "A remedy for masturbation which is almost always successful in small boys is circumcision," he wrote. "The operation should be performed by a surgeon without administering an anesthetic, as the brief pain attending the operation will have a salutary effect upon the mind, especially if it be connected with the idea of punishment. In females, the author has found the application of pure carbolic acid to the clitoris an excellent means of allaying the abnormal excitement."

As astonishing as it may seem, Kellogg's views were shared by most prominent practitioners of the time. In Robert Tooke's popular book "All About the Baby," published in 1896, circumcision is recommended for preventing "the vile habit of masturbation." And Dr. Mary Melendy, author of "For Maidens, Wives and Mothers," wrote that masturbation "lays the foundation for consumption, paralysis and heart disease ... It even makes many lose their minds; others, when grown, commit suicide." Appealing to parents who might question the protracted afflictions associated with masturbation, Melendy warned, "Don't think it does no harm to your boy because he does not suffer now, for the effects of this vice come on so slowly that the victim is often very near death before you realize that he has done himself harm."

Circumcision was not only bound up with deeply irrational fears about masturbation at the turn of the century; it was also tied to sociocultural changes as vast waves of immigration flooded American cities. Circumcision became a mark of social class that distinguished gentrified, "real" Americans from the "insalubrious" immigrant masses at a time when cleanliness was synonymous with godliness. Eventually, circumcision staked its claim on the American male and his problematic penis, and became so accepted as the norm that by the early 1900s standard medical textbooks depicted the normal penis without its foreskin. In this highly charged atmosphere, American parents who chose not to circumcise their sons were almost criminally negligent, if not freakishly nonconformist.
An irrational practice based on pseudoscience and fear? Only in America.
__________________

__________________
Ormus is offline  
 

Thread Tools Search this Thread
Search this Thread:

Advanced Search
Display Modes

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off
Trackbacks are Off
Pingbacks are Off
Refbacks are Off



All times are GMT -5. The time now is 06:59 PM.


Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.8 Beta 1
Copyright ©2000 - 2017, vBulletin Solutions, Inc.
Design, images and all things inclusive copyright © Interference.com