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Old 01-27-2005, 04:58 PM   #1
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Animal-Human Hybrids Spark Controversy

Quote:
Maryann Mott
National Geographic News

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/n..._chimeras.html

January 25, 2005
Scientists have begun blurring the line between human and animal by producing chimeras—a hybrid creature that's part human, part animal.

Chinese scientists at the Shanghai Second Medical University in 2003 successfully fused human cells with rabbit eggs. The embryos were reportedly the first human-animal chimeras successfully created. They were allowed to develop for several days in a laboratory dish before the scientists destroyed the embryos to harvest their stem cells.

In Minnesota last year researchers at the Mayo Clinic created pigs with human blood flowing through their bodies.

And at Stanford University in California an experiment might be done later this year to create mice with human brains.

Scientists feel that, the more humanlike the animal, the better research model it makes for testing drugs or possibly growing "spare parts," such as livers, to transplant into humans.

Watching how human cells mature and interact in a living creature may also lead to the discoveries of new medical treatments.

But creating human-animal chimeras—named after a monster in Greek mythology that had a lion's head, goat's body, and serpent's tail—has raised troubling questions: What new subhuman combination should be produced and for what purpose? At what point would it be considered human? And what rights, if any, should it have?

There are currently no U.S. federal laws that address these issues.

Ethical Guidelines

The National Academy of Sciences, which advises the U.S. government, has been studying the issue. In March it plans to present voluntary ethical guidelines for researchers.

A chimera is a mixture of two or more species in one body. Not all are considered troubling, though.

For example, faulty human heart valves are routinely replaced with ones taken from cows and pigs. The surgery—which makes the recipient a human-animal chimera—is widely accepted. And for years scientists have added human genes to bacteria and farm animals.

What's caused the uproar is the mixing of human stem cells with embryonic animals to create new species.

Biotechnology activist Jeremy Rifkin is opposed to crossing species boundaries, because he believes animals have the right to exist without being tampered with or crossed with another species.

He concedes that these studies would lead to some medical breakthroughs. Still, they should not be done.

"There are other ways to advance medicine and human health besides going out into the strange, brave new world of chimeric animals," Rifkin said, adding that sophisticated computer models can substitute for experimentation on live animals.

"One doesn't have to be religious or into animal rights to think this doesn't make sense," he continued. "It's the scientists who want to do this. They've now gone over the edge into the pathological domain."

David Magnus, director of the Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics at Stanford University, believes the real worry is whether or not chimeras will be put to uses that are problematic, risky, or dangerous.

Human Born to Mice Parents?

For example, an experiment that would raise concerns, he said, is genetically engineering mice to produce human sperm and eggs, then doing in vitro fertilization to produce a child whose parents are a pair of mice.

"Most people would find that problematic," Magnus said, "but those uses are bizarre and not, to the best of my knowledge, anything that anybody is remotely contemplating. Most uses of chimeras are actually much more relevant to practical concerns."

Last year Canada passed the Assisted Human Reproduction Act, which bans chimeras. Specifically, it prohibits transferring a nonhuman cell into a human embryo and putting human cells into a nonhuman embryo.

Cynthia Cohen is a member of Canada's Stem Cell Oversight Committee, which oversees research protocols to ensure they are in accordance with the new guidelines.

She believes a ban should also be put into place in the U.S.

Creating chimeras, she said, by mixing human and animal gametes (sperms and eggs) or transferring reproductive cells, diminishes human dignity.

"It would deny that there is something distinctive and valuable about human beings that ought to be honored and protected," said Cohen, who is also the senior research fellow at Georgetown University's Kennedy Institute of Ethics in Washington, D.C.

But, she noted, the wording on such a ban needs to be developed carefully. It shouldn't outlaw ethical and legitimate experiments—such as transferring a limited number of adult human stem cells into animal embryos in order to learn how they proliferate and grow during the prenatal period.

Irv Weissman, director of Stanford University's Institute of Cancer/Stem Cell Biology and Medicine in California, is against a ban in the United States.

"Anybody who puts their own moral guidance in the way of this biomedical science, where they want to impose their will—not just be part of an argument—if that leads to a ban or moratorium. … they are stopping research that would save human lives," he said.

Mice With Human Brains

Weissman has already created mice with brains that are about one percent human.

Later this year he may conduct another experiment where the mice have 100 percent human brains. This would be done, he said, by injecting human neurons into the brains of embryonic mice.

Before being born, the mice would be killed and dissected to see if the architecture of a human brain had formed. If it did, he'd look for traces of human cognitive behavior.

Weissman said he's not a mad scientist trying to create a human in an animal body. He hopes the experiment leads to a better understanding of how the brain works, which would be useful in treating diseases like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease.

The test has not yet begun. Weissman is waiting to read the National Academy's report, due out in March.

William Cheshire, associate professor of neurology at the Mayo Clinic's Jacksonville, Florida, branch, feels that combining human and animal neurons is problematic.

"This is unexplored biologic territory," he said. "Whatever moral threshold of human neural development we might choose to set as the limit for such an experiment, there would be a considerable risk of exceeding that limit before it could be recognized."

Cheshire supports research that combines human and animal cells to study cellular function. As an undergraduate he participated in research that fused human and mouse cells.

But where he draws the ethical line is on research that would destroy a human embryo to obtain cells, or research that would create an organism that is partly human and partly animal.

"We must be cautious not to violate the integrity of humanity or of animal life over which we have a stewardship responsibility," said Cheshire, a member of Christian Medical and Dental Associations. "Research projects that create human-animal chimeras risk disturbing fragile ecosystems, endanger health, and affront species integrity."

While I support putting animal body parts into humans for health reasons, the idea of creating a whole new species sounds scary and I think its going too far. Also creating a new species for experimental and research purposes sounds like a violation of the rights of these humans/animals/however you want to see them. And the scientists do say that there are other ways to learn about the human body rather than doing this.

What does everybody think? Have scientists gone too far? Should we be creating a new species now since we have the ability to do so? Is it ethical to be developing human body parts - or even human beings - in these creatures? Is this the way science should go in order for the benefit of humanity?
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Old 01-27-2005, 05:06 PM   #2
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That is really creepy................................
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Old 01-27-2005, 05:23 PM   #3
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Nothing wrong with that, it is entirely ethical to create new life forms in the interests of keeping human beings alive ~ harvesting organs for survival is no different than slaughtering an animal for meat.
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Old 01-27-2005, 08:39 PM   #4
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But is it ethical for a human being to be born to mice? Would the child develop properly (emotionally, mentally) having not been formed inside a human? I mean, should cross-breeding be allowed like that?

I do think its OK for human organs to be developed in animals, but cross-breeding and creating a whole new species sounds too much, and there are so many questions to it, its boggling my mind.
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Old 01-27-2005, 08:46 PM   #5
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We are not forming a human being inside a mice, we are developing human cells that are compatiable for transplants. Even then growing embryos outside the womb perhaps in some sort of chamber would not be a problem, provided they recieve the same nutrients etc.
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Old 01-27-2005, 09:07 PM   #6
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Eh, lemme know when somebody successfully grows a centaur.
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Old 01-27-2005, 09:11 PM   #7
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I am now picturing a bad horror movie where half human half animal mutants escape from a lab and start eating people. I usually support science, but this just sounds wrong.
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Old 01-27-2005, 10:06 PM   #8
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this is going to be a REALLY messed up world!
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Old 01-27-2005, 10:21 PM   #9
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How? This is a good thing isn't it, reasearch that could lead to us growing organs suitable for transplant inside animals, cutting the waiting lists and organ donor shortages and delivering new insight into engineering organs and tissues. I think that this research is exactly how we solve problems that cost many lives every day.
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Old 01-28-2005, 12:57 AM   #10
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How disappointing. There are no piccies to go with that article.

Of course I wouldn't know until it happens, but I imagine that if I were diagnosed with whatever, I would rather accept my death than harvest an appendage from a pharm animal.

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Old 01-28-2005, 01:56 AM   #11
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Why would you rather die? If your life can be saved by such a simple procedure, it's just a pig (since I see your delightful sig I am thinking a bit of Buffy Season 7 where Andrew is trying to slaughter the pig to open the seal ~ although seasons 2 and 3 were much better in my opinion).
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Old 01-28-2005, 02:22 AM   #12
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Ah Andrew, one of my favourites. Even Woody Allen isn't as nervous as him.

Death is a fact of life, so I would rather work towards accepting that than fighting against it. I'm sure many people think this way.

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Old 01-28-2005, 02:40 AM   #13
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Quote:
Death is a fact of life, so I would rather work towards accepting that than fighting against it. I'm sure many people think this way.
I don't - I'm bloody terrified of it. Bring on the Island of Dr. Moreau, I say.



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Old 01-28-2005, 02:43 AM   #14
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Excellent, we have two ~ would you averse to having some sort of cybernetic body?
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Old 01-28-2005, 02:49 AM   #15
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Hrm... a cybernetic body, now there's a thought. It depends to what extent I suppose.

Oh, who am I kidding? I wouldn't mind being totally cybernetic, as long as they kept my magnetic personality.

Bad joke, I know, but to answer your question; I'm the sort of person who'd probably try being a vampire, if it meant living for all eternity. Yourself?

I'm really not proud of this pathological fear of death, but hey, I see theories of freezing people and mice children, and I find it in myself to smile.

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